SUBCOURSE IT 0601
US ARMY INTELLIGENCE CENTER QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES
Subcourse Number IT 0601 Edition C
United States Army Intelligence Center Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-6000
2 Credit Hours
Edition Date: May 1997
This subcourse provides information on the proper use of questioning techniques during an interrogation in order to gain the maximum amount of enemy prisoner of war (EPW)/detainee information in the minimum amount of time. To understand how to effectively lead the EPW/detainee through his memory to obtain enemy dispositions.
Non-MOS 97E personnel should complete USAICS subcourse IT 0606 prior to taking this subcourse.
This subcourse reflects current doctrine at time of preparation. In your own work situation, always refer to the latest publication.
The words “he,” “him,” “his,” and “men,” when used in this publication, represent the masculine and feminine genders unless otherwise stated.
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE
TASKS: To apply direct questioning techniques to obtain all information pertinent to interrogation objective(s). To identify spot reportable information during the interrogation. To access and control the EPW/Detainee through proper use of repeated and control questions.
CONDITIONS: Performed in a tactical environment. Given a EPW/detainee, captive tag, documents captured with the EPW/detainee, screening reports, previous interrogation reports, interrogation plan, map(s) of the area where EPW/detainee was captured, interrogation notes, and a pencil/marker capable of recording dispositions on a map’s surface, satisfy assigned collection requirements, maintain control of the interrogation, and correctly prepare written interrogation reports.
STANDARDS: To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a minimum of 70% on the subcourse examination.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|LESSON 1:||Questioning Techniques||1-1|
|Answer Key and Feedback||1-14|
|LESSON 2:||Map Tracking||2-1|
|Assess Map Skills||2-2|
|Answer Key and Feedback||2-10|
CRITICAL TASKS: 301-337-1401 301-337-1501
This lesson will enable you to apply direct questioning techniques, and assess and control the enemy prisoner of war (EPW) /detainee through use of repeated and control questions.
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE
To ensure questions are comprehensive enough so topic of interest is thoroughly exploited.
To select topics in which the EPW/detainee is knowledgeable.
EPW/detainee answers should establish the who, what, where, when, and how.
The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publication:
Although there is no fixed point at which the approach phase ends and the questioning phase begins, the questioning phase generally commences when the EPW/detainee begins to answer questions pertinent to specific interrogation objectives. The tactical commander requires the maximum amount of usable information in the minimum amount of time to make decisions on how to best employ his combat resources.
Questions should be comprehensive enough to ensure the topic of interest is thoroughly exploited. Answers should establish the who, what, where, when, and how. Questions should be presented in a logical sequence to ascertain significant topics are not neglected. A series of questions, followed by a chronological sequence of events, is frequently employed, but this is by no means the only logical method of asking questions. Sequence adherence should not deter the interrogator from exploiting informational leads as they are obtained.
The interrogator must consider the probable EPW/detainee response to a particular question or line of questioning and should not, if possible, ask direct questions that will evoke a refusal to answer or to antagonize the EPW/detainee. Experience has shown, in most tactical interrogations, the EPW/detainee is cooperative. In such instances, the interrogator should proceed with direct questions.
During planning and preparation, the interrogator uses his estimate of the type and extent of pertinent knowledge possessed by the EPW/detainee to modify the basic topical questioning sequence. He selects only those topics in which he believes the EPW/detainee has pertinent knowledge. In this way, the interrogator refines his element’s overall objective into a set of specific topics for exploitation. The major topics that can be covered in an interrogation are shown below in their normal sequence. The interrogator is, however, free to modify this sequence as he deems necessary.
★ Strength/weapons and equipment.
★ Dispositions (map tracking).
★ Combat effectiveness.
★ Electronic technical data.
During the questioning phase of the interrogation, the interrogator attempts to obtain all the information the EPW/detainee possesses pertinent to interrogation objectives. In order to perform this task effectively, interrogators must be able to-
★ Employ good questioning techniques.
★ Recognize spot reportable information.
★ Exploit leads.
★ Maintain the modified questioning sequence established during planning and preparation.
★ Employ map tracking skills.
★ Record information obtained.
In a tactical environment, using a foreign language and operating under severe time restraints, the direct questioning technique is the best choice. The direct questioning technique–
★ Uses only properly formed, direct questions beginning with a basic interrogative, for example, who, what, when, where, why, how, plus qualifier.
★ Properly uses follow-up questions for complete information.
★ Properly uses repeated, control, prepared, and nonpertinent questions for interrogation control and to assess the EPW/detainee.
★ Avoids confusing, ambiguous, and time-consuming questions.
★ Uses logical topical questioning sequence.
Direct question characteristics are–
★ Brief, concise, simply worded, and address the looked-for information.
★ Asks for a narrative response (cannot be answered by just yes or no).
★ Produces the maximum amount of usable information, and gives a greater number of leads to new questioning avenues.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
For obvious reasons, it is prudent to use good questioning techniques throughout the questioning phase. The interrogator must know when and how to use the different types of questions, and be able to use the following types of questions–
Direct questions are brief, precise, and simply worded. They specifically address the information which the interrogator wants to obtain. They use vocabulary and grammatical structure understood by the EPW/detainee. Direct questions are preferred during interrogations because they most likely obtain the desired response. Direct questions are formulated with the basic interrogatives who, what, when, why, where, and how. They will elicit a narrative informational response (what, how, or why) or a specific informational response (who, when, or where).
Below is a sample of how correctly worded direct questions are used.
I – Interrogator.
E – EPW.
I – How many officers are in the third motorized rifle company?
E – Three.
I – What are the duty positions of these officers?
E – Commanding officer, rear services officer, and political officer.
I – What was your most recent past mission?
E – I was assigned to a recon patrol.
Follow-up questions are designed to obtain additional information on a specific subject or topical area. Questions usually flow one-from-another based on the answers to previous questions. Interrogators ask a basic question and based on the answer, use follow-up questions to exploit leads provided by the EPW/detainee to ensure all pertinent information in each topical area has been obtained.
Below is an example of using good follow-up questions.
I – You mentioned having been in BRAUSTEIN. Why were you there?
E – To pick up more supplies.
I – What kind of supplies did you pick up?
E – Ammunition and food.
I – When – did you pick up the supplies?
E – December second.
I – What time did you pick up the supplies?
E – Eight in the morning.
Nopertinent questions are used to conceal the interrogation’s objective(s) or to strengthen EPW/detainee rapport. They may also be used to break the EPW/detainee’s concentration or trail of thought, particularly if the interrogator suspects the EPW/detainee is lying. It is hard for an EPW/detainee to be a convincing liar if his concentration is frequently interrupted.
By carefully blending pertinent with nonpertinent questions, the interrogator can lead the EPW/detainee to believe some relatively insignificant matter is the interrogation basis by asking questions in a casual manner. The EPW/detainee may be reluctant to discuss the matter of interest, but quite willing to discuss more pleasant things. The interrogator may relax the EPW/detainee by first discussing irrelevant topics using nonpertinent questions, then switching back to pertinent questions for desired information.
Below is a sample dialogue where the interrogator uses nonpertinent questions.
I – I can understand you might be hesitant to talk to me, but these are just routine administrative questions. Everything you tell me will be kept in strict confidence.
E – Well, I do not know.
I – I notice you are rubbing your head. Do you have a headache?
E – No, I am just tired.
I – Are you having trouble sleeping?
E – Well, it is hard to sleep in a strange place, and I can never forget I am a prisoner.
I – I can understand that. Let me ask these questions, and then you can go and get some rest.
Repeated questions ask the EPW/detainee for the same information obtained in response to earlier questions. They may be exact repetitions of the previous question, or the previous question may be rephrased or otherwise disguised. Repeated questions may be used to check the consistency of the EPW/detainee’s previous responses. They may also be used to ensure accuracy of important details such as place names, dates, and component parts of technical equipment.
Since a lie is more difficult to remember than the truth, especially when the lie has been composed on the spur of the moment, the interrogator can establish errors by rephrasing and disguising the same question(s) which the EPW/detainee has already answered. The interrogator spaces his repeated question(s) to prevent the EPW/detainee from anticipating what will be asked.
The use of repeated questions may develop a topic the EPW/detainee refused to talk about earlier. They may also be used as a means of returning to a topical area for further questioning.
Below is a dialogue where the interrogator uses repeated questions to ascertain information previously obtained was accurate.
I – What type of armored vehicles are in the anti-aircraft battery?
E – There is the ZSU 23 and the BRDM.
I – What is the full military nomenclature of the ZSU 23?
E – It is the ZSU 23-4.
I – How many ZSU 23-4’s are in the battery?
E – Four.
I – What armament is on the ZSU 23-4?
E – It has four 23mm anti-aircraft machine guns.
I – How are the five ZSU 23-4’s distributed within the battery?
E – What do you mean five? There are only four ZSU 23-4’s in the battery.
I – How are the ZSU 23-4’s distributed within the battery?
E – There Is one in each gun section.
Control questions are developed from information which the interrogator knows to be true. Control questions should be based on information which has been recently confirmed, and is not likely to change since that confirmation. Control questions are used to check the truthfulness of the EPW/detainee’s responses, and should be mixed in with other questions throughout the interrogation. Failure to answer these questions or wrong answers indicates the EPW/detainee may not be knowledgeable on the topic or his answers to other questions are also false.
An example of a control question is to ask the EPW what type of individual weapons his unit had. You know from other confirmed sources his unit had AK-74’s. If the EPW answers with anything other than AK-74, you have a good reason to disbelieve him. This opens the door for repeated questions.
Prepared questions are developed in advance of an interrogation 😮 gain precise wording or the most desirable questioning sequence. They are used primarily for interrogations which are technical in nature, require legal precision, or cover a number of specific topics.
In cases where the interrogator will touch or several fields of interest, it may be desirable to prepare an interrogation guide or outline to ensure all topics are explored. In the use of prepared questions or interrogation guides, the interrogator must be careful to avoid restricting the interrogation’s scope and flexibility.
Leading questions may prompt the EPW/detainee to answer with the response he believes the interrogator wishes to hear. As a result, the response may be inaccurate or incomplete. A leading question starts with: Did you….. , Could you….., Are you….. This type of question does not require a narrative answer. For example, a question such as: “Did you go back to your unit’?” The EPW can answer “yes” or “no.” You have wasted a question, but more important, precious time by having to rephrase the question using a proper direct question. Leading questions are generally avoided during interrogations, but can be used by experienced interrogators to verify information. This is especially true during map tracking.
The interrogator avoids vague questions as they do not have enough information for the EPW/detainee to understand exactly what is being asked. They may be incomplete, “blanket” or otherwise nonspecific, and create doubt in the EPW/detainee’s mind. Vague questions tend to confuse, waste time, are easily evaded, and result in answers that may confuse or mislead the interrogator.
The interrogator must be proficient when using different types of questions. Active listening and maximum EPW/detainee eye-to-eye contact will provide excellent indicators when to use follow-up, repeated, control, and nonpertinent questions. The interrogator must use direct and follow-up questions to fully exploit subjects pertinent to interrogation objective(s). He should periodically include control, repeated, and nonpertinent questions to check the sincerity and consistency of EPW/detainee responses, and to strengthen rapport. A response which is inconsistent with earlier responses or the interrogator’s available data is not necessarily a lie. When such a response is obtained, the interrogator should reveal the inconsistency to the EPW/detainee and ask for an explanation. The EPW/detainee’s truthfulness should then be evaluated based on the plausibility of his explanation.
There are two types of questions the interrogator should not use-compound and negative. Compound questions ask for at least two different pieces of information. They are easily evaded hard to understand, and bring an incomplete answer.
An example of a compound questions is: “What type of training did you receive at the basic training center and what type of training did you receive at the advanced training center?” The EPW/detainee may answer both, only one, or neither one. The answer received may be ambiguous, incomplete, or both. Definitive answers to compound questions are seldom received.
The interrogator avoids asking negatively phrased questions because they are confusing, and may produce misleading or false information. Suppose for a moment the interrogator poses a question such as this: “You do not know whether Smith went to the headquarters last night?” The reply is “Yes.” Did the EPW/detainee intend to say, “Yes, I know,” or did he mean, “Yes, it is true I do not know,” or did he mean, “Yes, Smith was there.” The ambiguity is caught when the answer is received, but another question must be asked to clarify the doubt. If the interrogator fails to note the negative question, in all probability he will elicit an answer the EPW/detainee never meant to give. In either case, the delay or the resulting loss of an important point detracts from the interrogation’s effectiveness.
Just knowing what the types of questions are, how to identity them, and something about how they can be used is not enough to make a proficient interrogator. A good interrogator has incorporated this theoretical information into his performance in every interrogation, and doing that requires practice.
SPOT REPORTABLE INFORMATION
Spot reportable information is any information critical to the successful accomplishment of friendly courses of action. Information may be spot reportable even when an interrogator cannot determine its immediate intelligence value. Spot reportable information is always time-sensitive, answers supported, higher, or adjacent unit’s priority intelligence requirements (PIR) and information requirements (IR).
NOTE: The interrogator may have to temporarily terminate the interrogation to report the information.
The value of spot reportable information depends on the speed which it is processed. If an interrogator obtains information he thinks is spot reportable, he must compare the information with his element’s overall objective statement. Information relating to any intelligence indicators listed in the objective statement are spot reportable. Information relating to indicators not listed may still be spot reportable. The key to identifying spot reportable information is recognizing its potential value. If the information indicates a significant change in enemy capability or intent, it is spot reportable.
Information inconsistent with current order of battle (OB) holdings should be spot reported if the inconsistency concerns an important item, and the EPW/detainee has given a plausible explanation for the inconsistency. If the interrogator cannot decide whether or not a piece of information is spot reportable, he should act as though it is. This means he should fully exploit it and record all pertinent information. The interrogator should then consult with the senior interrogator for a final determination of the information’s value.
Spot reportable information is reported orally or written, using the SALUTE format (see figure 1-1).
HOT AND COLD LEADS
Leads are signs which alert the interrogator the EPW/detainee has additional pertinent information that can be obtained through further questioning. Leads are provided by the EPW/detainee in response to questions. There are two types of leads – “hot” and “cold.” A “hot” lead, when fully exploited, may contain spot reportable information. A “cold” lead, when fully developed, may contain no spot reportable information but is of intelligence value. The use of follow -up questions to fully exploit “hot” and “cold” leads may require the interrogator to cover topics he did not list in his interrogation plan. The interrogator must exploit “hot” leads as soon as he identifies them. Once the interrogator is sure he has obtained and recorded all details known to the EPW/detainee, he issues a spot report. The interrogator then resumes his EPW/detainee questioning at the point where the “hot” lead was obtained. The interrogator should note “cold” leads, as they are obtained, on his lead sheet and exploit those leads during his questioning on the topics which the “cold” leads apply. “Cold” leads may expand the interrogation scope as they may indicate the EPW/detainee possesses pertinent information in areas not previously selected for questioning.
If the interrogator does not fully exploit all “cold” leads obtained, he must include information on all leads he did not exploit in his interrogation report.
HEARSAY ( H/S) INFORMATION
Hearsay is unverified, unofficial information gained or acquired from another person. When reported, it must include the most precise information possible of its source. This will include the name, duty position, and full unit designation of the person who provided the information, and the date time group when the EPW/detainee obtained the information.
The interrogator should begin questioning with the first topic tentatively established as part of his interrogation plan. Normally, the first questioning topic should be concerned with determining the most recent EPW/detainee duties. This information will give the interrogator an important clue to general EPW/detainee knowledge, and can provide a transition to the next question.
Clues obtained from EPW/detainee duties will help determine the EPW/detainee’s mission prior to capture. This information will also aid the interrogator in determining missions of the EPW/detainee’s agency or unit, and those of related units.
The EPW/detainee will be most familiar with his own unit’s activities, locations, installations, or troop dispositions, and other units within his area of operation. He is best qualified to speak about activities which he was personally engaged in or observed.
The EPW/detainee may be able to provide additional information about adjacent areas. This will enable the intelligence officer or using agency to draw conclusions concerning other sectors of the enemy front.
Everything the EPW/detainee contributes to the overall situation should be reported. This includes supporting unit’s locations, deployments, activities, and information regarding area installations and weapons. It also includes all commander’s names and other persons known to the EPW/detainee.
The EPW/detainee may have observed items of intelligence interest while moving in or through other areas. Ask questions on these points. If the EPW/detainee has recently been in rear areas, he may have information concerning reserve units, artillery positions, higher headquarters locations, supply installations and routes, preparations for defense in depth, and other related data.
The interrogator obtains all the EPW/detainee’s pertinent knowledge in the topical area before moving on to the next topic. The interrogator should maintain established questioning sequence to ensure no topics are missed during questioning.
As the final questioning step, the interrogator should obtain any additional conclusions, statements, observations, or evaluations, especially from a knowledgeable EPW/detainee. Officer EPW or informed noncommissioned officers and civilian sources, who may be qualified, should be thoroughly questioned as to their conclusions, opinions, and evaluations. Their conclusions may be as important as factual information. When the interrogator receives such information, he must further obtain facts on which the EPW/detainee based his conclusions and/or evaluations.
SPOT REPORT I
TO: G2,X Corps DATE: 230950ZAug93 j
FM: Team 1,1 PW Section REPORT NUMBER: 08-0175
231st Ml Bn (CEWI), 23d Inf Div (MECH)
1. (U) SIZE/WHO: Company-size tank unit.
2. (U) ACTIVITY/WHAT: Reconnoiter and secure river-crossing sites (number
3. (U) LOCATION/WHERE: West bank of FULDA river, southwest of BEBRA
(NB 5547). Exact location unknown.
4. (U) UNIT/WHO; Amphibious Tank Co/Recon bn/56th MRD.
5. (U) TIME/WHEN: Mission to be completed no later than 232330ZAug98.
6. (U) EQUIPMENT/HOW: Using assigned weapons and equipment.
7. (U) REMARKS:
a. (U) SOURCE: EPW assigned interrogation serial number US-AR-2235-1.
b. (U) MAP DATA: GERMANY, 1:50,000, EISENACH-HUNFELD, 87-242.
c. (U) H/S, JrSgt PETRENKO, Squad leader, Amphibious Tank Co/ Recon
Co/56th MRD, 222230ZAug98.
Figure 1-1. Spot (SALUTE) Report
The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved.
1. Spot reportable information is reported-
A. Through complete EPW/detainee exploitation.
B. By following up a “cold” lead.
C. When OB holdings are inconsistent.
D. Orally or written.
2. When the interrogator casually asks the EPW/detainee how his family is doing, this is an example of what type of question?
3. Generally, the questioning phase commences when the EPW/detainee-
A. Responds to your approach.
B. Requests political asylum.
C. Begins to answer specific questions.
D. Recognizes a significant topic.
4. Two types of questions the interrogator should not use are
A. Direct and nonpertinent.
B. Repeated and prepared.
C. Compound and negative.
D. Follow-up and control.
5. The direct questioning technique uses-
A. Ambiguous questions so the EPW/detainee does not realize he is being interrogated.
B. Follow-up questions for complete information.
C. Questions where the EPW/detainee can answer “yes” or “no.”
D. Recording devices to ensure nothing is missed.
PRACTICE EXERCISE Answer Key and Feedback
Item Correct Answer and Feedback
|1.||D.||Orally or written (page 1-9).|
|2.||D.||Nonpertinent (page 1-5).|
|3.||C.||Begins to answer specific questions (page 1-1).|
|4.||C.||Compound and negative (page 1-8).|
|5.||B.||Follow-up questions for complete information (page 1-3)|
MAP TRACKING CRITICAL TASK: 301-337-1402 OVERVIEW
This lesson will enable you to define and discuss the fundamentals of map tracking. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE
ACTION: To extract valuable EPW/detainee information by tracing movements and
observations prior to capture.
CONDITION: Interrogator must be proficient in all aspects of map reading to obtain accurate and
detailed EPW/detainee information.
STANDARD: To lead the EPW/detainee through his memory, in a logical manner, to obtain
locations of enemy dispositions the EPW/ detainee had knowledge of within 72 hours of his capture.
REFERENCE: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publication:
Every interrogator must be very proficient in all aspects of map reading. Maps are used extensively in all interrogations, and are extremely valuable tools for obtaining accurate and detailed EPW/detainee information.
Map tracking is a critical facet of map reading skills, in that it provides a means to extract valuable EPW/detainee information by tracing movements and observations prior to capture. This enables the interrogator to guide the EPW/detainee, using the map, to a common recognition point for the EPW/detainee and the interrogator. This gives a beginning point from which to work when tracking the EPW/detainee’s route to his point of capture (POC) or the original departure point.
A military area map, which includes the EPW/detainee’s POC, is a prerequisite for a thorough interrogation. The required map(s) should be obtained prior to the interrogation. For interrogation purposes, large-scale maps are the best, and should be of the same scale as those used by supported intelligence sections.
POC coordinates assist the interrogator in plotting the exact POC on the map, and will aid the EPW/detainee to recall area terrain features. The POC is plotted using a six-digit coordinate.
From the captive tag that accompanies the EPW/detainee (prepared by the capturing unit), or as the result of questioning a guard or escort, the interrogator can usually obtain information on the EPW/detainee’s time, place, circumstances of capture (COC), and the capturing unit.
The first map tracking step is when the interrogator and EPW/detainee become familiar with a ground location which can become a common reference point (CRP) which to begin map tracking.
Important map tracking procedures are–
★ Keeping the EPW/detainee’s attention.
★ Taking copious notes as you track the EPW/detainee’s route(s).
ASSESS MAP SKILLS
The interrogator asks the EPW/detainee if he can read the interrogator’s map. If he can, the EPW/detainee is asked to point out route locations and pertinent dispositions.
If the EPW/detainee appears unfamiliar with thee map’s features, orient him to the map by explaining the symbols, colors, grids and other features. If the EPW/detainee is able to locate his pOc after this orientation and is able to read the map, this makes the interrogator’s job easier and some map tracking steps may be omitted.
Ask the EPW/detainee to show the route traveled and locate appropriate dispositions on the map. Label these dispositions in the same manner as when map tracking.
After you have determined whether or not the EPW/detainee can read a map, what happens next? Map tracking is based on the concept that the interrogator is completely oriented to his map in relation to terrain and the area in question. The interrogation can, through word and idea association, guide the EPW/detainee through various terrain features which he recently traveled without the EPW/detainee being able to read a map.
If the EPW/detainee cannot read the interrogation’s map he must be asked if he knows compass directions.
If the EPW/detainee says “no,” you must depend on other elicited information to map track. This means you will have to guide the EPW/detainee very carefully to determine his exact route.
If the EPW/detainee says “yes,” verify whether or not this is true. Ask, for example, “if you are facing the rising sun, what compass direction would be on your right?” If he answers “south,” you can expect compass directions he gives to be accurate. If the EPW/detainee gives any other answer, the interrogator must rely upon other means to determine compass directions, for example, left or right instead of north or south.
The interrogator may find the EPW/detainee is most confident when expressing himself in terms other than compass directions. When this occurs, the interrogator should allow the EPW/detainee to use his own reference frames. However, the interrogator must ensure he understands the EPW/detainee.
The basic idea is if the EPW/detainee cannot read a map, he cannot point out dispositions. The dispositions must be obtained by guiding the EPW/ detainee.
ESTABLISH INITIAL COMMON REFERENCE POINT (ICRP)
The first location the interrogator should try to establish as the ICRP is the EPW/detainee’s POC. Once this has been established and plotted, the next step is to tell the EPW/detainee to describe the POC area. This aids in pin-pointing the EPW/detainee’s POC.
The POC cannot be used, however, unless the EPW/detainee can describe it well enough for the interrogator to be certain of its location. If the POC cannot be used, the interrogator must review previously mentioned locations and ask the EPW/detainee to describe each of them in turn. Once the EPW/detainee describes a location well enough for the interrogator to be certain of its map position, an ICRP has been established. The interrogator then marks that position.
ESTABLISH DESTINATION COMMON REFERENCE POINT (DCRP)
The interrogator must review the EPW/detainee’s past missions to identify those points he actually visited. The interrogator must also determine how long ago the EPW/detainee was at each point, and approximately how far each point is from the ICRP. The interrogator wants to select as the DCRP that point visited by the EPW/detainee which provides the longest travel route to the ICRP, and is still within the supported command’s area of interest. The DCRP selected must be a location the EPW/detainee can describe well enough for it to be plotted on the map, even if it is nothing more than a general vicinity. The DCRP can also be obtained by using, as a general rule, a location furthest back in time, then distance, and, if necessary, highest in echelon. This will generally permit the interrogator to find the longest route.
The interrogator must establish the route the EPW/detainee traveled between the DCRP and ICRP. When the DCRP is a specific, identifiable point, the interrogator can establish the route from it to the ICRP, tracing the route in the same direction which the EPW/detainee actually traveled. When the DCRP is an undefined point, the interrogator must establish the route from the ICRP to the DCRP. This means the interrogator must trace the route in the opposite direction from that traveled by the EPW/detainee. The interrogator should establish the route traveled by using procedures in the sequence below–
★ Obtain EPW/detainee’s travel direction when leaving the ICRP.
★ Obtain surface description on which the EPW/detainee traveled.
★ Obtain distance EPW/detainee traveled in this direction.
★ Obtain prominent terrain feature(s) description(s) EPW/detainee remembers after traveling in this direction for the distance given.
NOTE: The above four items establishes a CRP.
★ Repeat questions and plot responses until entire route between ICRP and DCRP has been plotted.
The interrogator can follow the same sequence when establishing route actually traveled by the EPW/detainee by beginning with the DCRP.
The interrogator must obtain the exact location and description of each enemy disposition the EPW/detainee knew about at the DCRP. The interrogator does this by having the EPW/detainee–
★ Identify and describe all items of military significance belonging to his forces which are located at the DCRP, for example, command post (CP), minefield, or deployment.
★ Provide full unit designation (FUD) of enemy units to which these military items belong.
★ Describe all defense/security measures which are located at or near the DCRP.
★ Identify EPW/detainee’s information source, for example, personal observation.
★ Explain the last time EPW/detainee was there, or had information about the disposition in question, for example, date of information (DOL) or hearsay, if appropriate.
As other map positions are located, label them in the same manner.
If the EPW/detainee relates hearsay information concerning locations, record this information on the map the same way as before. Record the following information regarding the person from whom the EPW/detainee received the information–
★ Name (rank).
★ Duty position.
★ Person’s FUD.
★ Additionally, question the EPW/detainee as to when this person providing him this hearsay information actually saw the location/activity.
EXPLOIT ROUTE SEGMENTS
The interrogator begins exploiting the route with the segment closest to the ICRP or DCRP. The preferred way is the segment closest to the DCRP. but either can be used. Route segments are from the DCRP, to CRP, CRP to CRP, and CRP to ICRP. The interrogator asks the EPW/detainee: “From this point to this point (CRP), what of military significance belonging to your forces did you see, hear, or know of?” If there is no information, go to the next segment. The interrogator uses the same procedure he used to exploit the DCRP to ensure he fully exploits all dispositions found along each segment, for example, activity, security measures, DOI, collocated unit(s). If no disposition is found, go to the next segment. These steps are repeated until all route segments have been exploited.
Additional dispositions not on EPW/detainee route(s) can usually be obtained by the prudent use of the EPW/detainee’s mission statement(s) and organizational line and block chart. These items can give clues as to location(s) of other dispositions known to the EPW/detainee.
EXPLOIT DISPOSITIONS NOT ON ROUTE
If the interrogator obtains a disposition which is not located on the established route, he must establish the EPW/detainee’s route to that disposition. The interrogator treats this new route the same way he would any other route segment, exploiting the disposition and the route fully before moving on to obtain the next disposition.
To complete map tracking, question the EPW/detainee about any other locations, objects, and so on, of military significance he has seen, heard, or has knowledge of belonging to his forces.
The outlined sequence organizes map tracking so information obtained can be accurately plotted and recorded. Correct performance results in a product–the interrogators map. Dispositions must be plotted within 100 meters of their actual location(s). The description of each disposition must be recorded, preferably near the disposition site on the map.
As noted earlier, map tracking is an integral part of the interrogation. Here the interrogator obtains enemy dispositions that enables the tactical commander to “see” the battlefield so our advantage is maintained. As the EPW/detainee is led through his memory, in a logical manner, a valid reliability scale can be determined by comparing this EPW/detainee’s information with information already obtained from other EPW/detainees.
The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved.
1. The interrogator must establish the route the EPW/detainee traveled between the-
A. POC and COC.
B. DCRP and POC.
C. ICRP and COC.
D. DCRP and ICRP.
2. One important map tracking feature is–
A. Not to let the EPW/detainee see the map.
B. Keeping the EPW/detainee’s attention.
C. Ensuring the EPW/detainee can point out his POC.
D. The EPW/detainee accurately relates his circumstances of capture.
3. To complete map tracking, question the EPW/detainee-
A. if he told the truth.
B. If he wants to change or add anything.
C. About other locations and objects.
D. If dispositions are within 100 meters of their actual location.
4. Map tracking begins when the interrogator–
A. Orients the EPW/detainee to his map.
B. Begins to receive pertinent EPW/detainee information.
C. Plans and prepares for the interrogation
D. Points out specific map features to the EPW/detainee.
2-7 IT 0601
5. If the EPW/detainee cannot read the interrogator’s map-
A. Try and help the EPW/detainee to read the map.
B. Cancel this interrogation phase.
C. Get the EPW/detainee a map he can read.
D. Ask the EPW/detainee if he knows compass directions.
PRACTICE EXERCISE Answer Key and Feedback Item Correct Answer and Feedback
|1.||D.||DCRP and ICRP (page 2-4).|
|2.||B.||Keeping EPW/detainee’s attention (page 2-2).|
|3.||C.||About other locations and objects (page 2-5).|
|4.||A.||Orients the EPW/detainee to his map (page 2-2).|
|5.||D.||Ask the EPW/detainee it he knows compass directions (page 2-3),|
IT 0601 2-10
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