The Lives of the Twelve Caesars

[933] The “Adelphi” was first acted A.U.C. 593.

[934] This report is mentioned by Cicero (Ad Attic, vii. 3), who applies
it to the younger Laelius. The Scipio here mentioned is Scipio
Africanus, who was at this time about twenty-one years of age.

[935] The calends of March was the festival of married women. See
before, VESPASIAN, c. xix.

[936] Santra, who wrote biographies of celebrated characters, is
mentioned as “a man of learning,” by St. Jerom, in his preface to the
book on the Ecclesiastical Writers.

[937] The idea seems to have prevailed that Terence, originally an
African slave, could not have attained that purity of style in Latin
composition which is found in his plays, without some assistance. The
style of Phaedrus, however; who was a slave from Thrace, and lived in the
reign of Tiberius, is equally pure, although no such suspicion attaches
to his work.

[938] Cicero (de Clar. Orat. c. 207) gives Sulpicius Gallus a high
character as a finished orator and elegant scholar. He was consul when
the Andria was first produced.

[939] Labeo and Popilius are also spoken of by Cicero in high terms, Ib.
cc. 21 and 24. Q. Fabius Labeo was consul with M. Claudius Marcellus,
A.U.C. 570 and Popilius with L. Postumius Albinus, A.U.C. 580.

[940] The story of Terence’s having converted into Latin plays this
large number of Menander’s Greek comedies, is beyond all probability,
considering the age at which he died, and other circumstances. Indeed,
Menander never wrote so many as are here stated.

[941] They were consuls A.U.C. 594. Terence was, therefore, thirty-four
years old at the time of his death.

[942] Hortulorum, in the plural number. This term, often found in Roman
authors, not inaptly describes the vast number of little inclosures,
consisting of vineyards, orchards of fig-trees, peaches, etc., with
patches of tillage, in which maize, legumes, melons, pumpkins, and other
vegetables are cultivated for sale, still found on small properties, in
the south of Europe, particularly in the neighbourhood of towns.

[943] Suetonius has quoted these lines in the earlier part of his Life
of Terence. See before p. 532, where they are translated.

[944] Juvenal was born at Aquinum, a town of the Volscians, as appears
by an ancient MS., and is intimated by himself. Sat. iii. 319.

[945] He must have been therefore nearly forty years old at this time,
as he lived to be eighty.

[946] The seventh of Juvenal’s Satires.

[947] This Paris does not appear to have been the favourite of Nero, who
was put to death by that prince [see NERO, c. liv.], but another person
of the same name, who was patronised by the emperor Domitian. The name
of the poet joined with him is not known. Salmatius thinks it was
Statius Pompilius, who sold to Paris, the actor, the play of Agave;

Esurit, intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven.–Juv. Sat. vii. 87.

[948] Sulpicius Camerinus had been proconsul in Africa; Bareas Soranus
in Asia. Tacit. Annal. xiii. 52; xvi. 23. Both of them are said to have
been corrupt in their administration; and the satirist introduces their
names as examples of the rich and noble, whose influence was less than
that of favourite actors, or whose avarice prevented them from becoming
the patrons of poets.

[949] The “Pelopea,” was a tragedy founded on the story of the daughter
of Thyestes; the “Philomela,” a tragedy on the fate of Itys, whose
remains were served to his father at a banquet by Philomela and her
sister Progne.

[950] This was in the time of Adrian. Juvenal, who wrote first in the
reigns of Domitian and Trajan, composed his last Satire but one in the
third year of Adrian, A.U.C. 872.

[951] Syene is meant, the frontier station of the imperial troops in
that quarter of the world.

[952] A.U.C. 786, A.D. 34.

[953] A.U.C. 814, A.D. 62.

[954] Persius was one of the few men of rank and affluence among the
Romans, who acquired distinction as writers; the greater part of them
having been freedmen, as appears not only from these lives of the poets,
but from our author’s notices of the grammarians and rhetoricians. A
Caius Persius is mentioned with distinction by Livy in the second Punic
war, Hist. xxvi. 39; and another of the same name by Cicero, de Orat. ii.
6, and by Pliny; but whether the poet was descended from either of them,
we have no means of ascertaining.

[955] Persius addressed his fifth satire to Annaeus Cornutus. He was a
native of Leptis, in Africa, and lived at Rome in the time of Nero, by
whom he was banished.

[956] Caesius Bassus, a lyric poet, flourished during the reigns of Nero
and Galba. Persius dedicated his sixth Satire to him.

[957] “Numanus.” It should be Servilius Nonianus, who is mentioned by
Pliny, xxviii. 2, and xxxvii. 6.

[958] Commentators are not agreed about these sums, the text varying
both in the manuscripts and editions.

[959] See Dr. Thomson’s remarks on Persius, before, p. 398.

[960] There is no appearance of any want of finish in the sixth Satire of
Persius, as it has come down to us; but it has been conjectured that it
was followed by another, which was left imperfect.

[961] There were two Arrias, mother and daughter, Tacit. Annal. xvi.
34. 3.

[962] Persius died about nine days before he completed his twenty-ninth

[963] Venusium stood on the confines of the Apulian, Lucanian, and
Samnite territories.

Sequor hunc, Lucanus an Appulus anceps;
Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus.
Hor Sat. xi. 1. 34.
[964] Sat. i. 6. 45.

[965] Horace mentions his being in this battle, and does not scruple to
admit that he made rather a precipitate retreat, “relicta non bene
parmula.”–Ode xi. 7-9.

[966] See Ode xi. 7. 1.

[967] The editors of Suetonius give different versions of this epigram.
It seems to allude to some passing occurrence, and in its present form
the sense is to this effect: “If I love you not, Horace, to my very
heart’s core, may you see the priest of the college of Titus leaner than
his mule.”

[968] Probably the Septimius to whom Horace addressed the ode beginning

Septimi, Gades aditure mecum.–Ode xl. b. i.

[969] See AUGUSTUS, c. xxi.; and Horace, Ode iv, 4.

[970] See Epist. i. iv. xv.

Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises.

[971] It is satisfactory to find that the best commentators consider the
words between brackets as an interpolation in the work of Suetonius.
Some, including Bentley, reject the preceding sentence also.

[972] The works of Horace abound with references to his Sabine farm
which must be familiar to many readers. Some remains are still shewn,
consisting of a ruined wall and a tesselated pavement in a vineyard,
about eight miles from Tivoli, which are supposed, with reason, to mark
its site. At least, the features of the neighbouring country, as often
sketched by the poet–and they are very beautiful–cannot be mistaken.

[973] Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus were consuls A.U.C. 688.
The genial Horace, in speaking of his old wine, agrees with Suetonius in
fixing the date of his own birth:

O nata mecum consule Manlio
Testa.–Ode iii. 21.
And again,

Tu vina, Torquato, move
Consule pressa meo.–Epod. xiii. 8.

[974] A.U.C. 745. So that Horace was in his fifty-seventh, not his
fifty-ninth year, at the time of his death.

[975] It may be concluded that Horace died at Rome, under the hospitable
roof of his patron Mecaenas, whose villa and gardens stood on the
Esquiline hill; which had formerly been the burial ground of the lower
classes; but, as he tells us,

Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque
Aggere in aprico spatiare.–Sat. i. 8.

[976] Cordova. Lucan was the son of Annaeus Mella, Seneca’s brother.

[977] This sentence is very obscure, and Ernesti considers the text to
be imperfect.

[978] They had good reason to know that, ridiculous as the tyrant made
himself, it was not safe to incur even the suspicion of being parties to
a jest upon him.

[979] See NERO, c. xxxvi.

[980] St. Jerom (Chron. Euseb.) places Lucan’s death in the tenth year
of Nero’s reign, corresponding with A.U.C. 817. This opportunity is
taken of correcting an error in the press, p. 342, respecting the date of
Nero’s accession. It should be A.U.C. 807, A.D. 55.

[981] These circumstances are not mentioned by some other writers. See
Dr. Thomson’s account of Lucan, before, p. 347, where it is said that he
died with philosophical firmness.

[982] We find it stated ib. p. 396, that Lucan expired while pronouncing
some verses from his own Pharsalia: for which we have the authority of
Tacitus, Annal. xv. 20. 1. Lucan, it appears, employed his last hours in
revising his poems; on the contrary, Virgil, we are told, when his death
was imminent, renewed his directions that the Aeneid should be committed
to the flames.

[983] The text of the concluding sentence of Lucan’s life is corrupt,
and neither of the modes proposed for correcting it make the sense
intended very clear.

[984] Although this brief memoir of Pliny is inserted in all the
editions of Suetonius, it was unquestionably not written by him. The
author, whoever he was, has confounded the two Plinys, the uncle and
nephew, into which error Suetonius could not have fallen, as he lived on
intimate terms with the younger Pliny; nor can it be supposed that he
would have composed the memoir of his illustrious friend in so cursory a
manner. Scaliger and other learned men consider that the life of Pliny,
attributed to Suetonius, was composed more than four centuries after that
historian’s death.

[985] See JULIUS, c. xxviii. Caius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (the
younger Pliny) was born at Como, A.U.C. 814; A.D. 62. His father’s name
was Lucius Caecilius, also of Como, who married Plinia, the sister of
Caius Plinius Secundus, supposed to have been a native of Verona, the
author of the Natural History, and by this marriage the uncle of Pliny
the Younger. It was the nephew who enjoyed the confidence of the
emperors Nerva and Trajan, and was the author of the celebrated Letters.

[986] The first eruption of Mount Vesuvius occurred A.U.C. 831, A.D. 79.
See TITUS, c. viii. The younger Pliny was with his uncle at Misenum at
the time, and has left an account of his disastrous enterprise in one of
his letters, Epist. vi. xvi.

[987] For further accounts of the elder Pliny, see the Epistles of
his nephew, B. iii. 5; vi. 16. 20; and Dr. Thomson’s remarks before,
pp. 475-478.
Acilius, C., his heroic conduct in a sea-fight, 42.
Acte, a concubine of Nero, 357.
Actium, battle of, 81, 82.
Agrippa, M., his naval victory, 80; presented with a banner, 88;
his buildings, 93; aqueducts, 104; grandson of Augustus, 118; his
character, ib. 119; adopted, 203; banished, 204; murdered, 208.
Agrippina, daughter of M. Agrippa and Livia, 254; marries Germanicus,
118; banished by Tiberius, 225; birth of Caligula, 255; daughter of
Germanicus, Claudius marries her, 320, 327; suspected of poisoning
him, 331; her character, 335.
Alban Mount, 276, 298, and note; festival on, 482.
Albula, the warm springs at, 131.
Albutius, Silus, an orator, 528.
Alexander the Great, J. Caesar’s model, 5; his sarcophagus opened for
Augustus, 82.
Alexandria, museum at, 330; library at, 496, note; the key of Egypt, 449;
Vespasian’s miracles there, 450, and note.
Amphitheatres; of Statilius Taurus, 93; description of, 262, note; the
Castrensis, 265 and note; the Colosseum, 453 and note.
Andronicus, M. P. a scholar, 515.
Antony, Mark, at Caesar’s funeral, 53; triumvir with Octavius and
Lepidus, 75; opposes Octavius, 76; defeated by him, 77; their new
alliance, ib.; dissolved, 80; defeat at Actium, 81; flies to
Cleopatra, ib.; kills himself, ib.
Anticyra, island of, 272 and note.
Antium, the Apollo Belvidere found there, 217 note; preferred by
Caligula, 256; colony settled at, 343 and note.
Antonius, Lucius, brother of Mark, war with, 76; forced to
surrender, 78.
——, Musa, Augustus’s physician, 116.
Antonia, grandmother of Caligula, 267, 272.
Apollonius of Rhodes, 4.
Apple, the Matian, 496.
Apomus, fountain of, 203.
Apotheosis, J. Caesar, 1, note; and 55.
Apicius, his works, 249.
Aqueduct of the Anio, 265 and note, 314.
Arch of Claudius, 303; of Titus, 467 note.
Aricia, grove of, 81; a town near Rome, 73.
Arles, a Roman colony, 195.
Asinius Pollio, the orator, 304.
—— Gallius, his son, ib.; 329.
Atteius, the philologer, 513.
—— Capito, jurisconsult, 521.
Atticus, the friend of Cicero, 517 and note.
August, name of the month Sextilis changed to, 95.
AUGUSTUS CAESAR, his descent, 71; birth, 73; infancy and youth, 74;
civil wars, 76; battle of Philippi, 77; takes Perugia, 79; naval war
with Pompey, 80; battle of Actium, 81; forces Antony to kill
himself, ib.; and Cleopatra, ib.; foreign wars, 83; triumphs, 85;
conduct as a general, 86; in civil affairs, 88-90; in improving the
city, 90-94; in religious matters, 95; in administering justice, 96,
97; purifies the senate, 98; scrutiny of the knights, 102; his
munificence, 104; public spectacles, 105-108; colonies, 109; the
provinces, ib.; distribution of the army, 110; his clemency, 111;
moderation, 112, 113; honours paid him, 114-116; his wives and family,
117-119; friendships, 120; aspersions on his character, 121-124; his
domestic life, 125-129; person and health, 129-131; literary pursuits,
132-135; regard for religion and omens, 136-142; his last illness and
death, 143-145; his funeral and will, 146-147; remarks on his life and
times, 148-191.
Aulus Plautius commands in Britain, 309 and note, 444; his ovation, 316.

Baiae, Julian harbour formed at, 79; frequented by Augustus, 126.
Basilicas, the, 7 and note.
Basilides, an Egyptian priest, 447 note; appears to Vespasian, 450.
Baths of Nero, 345 and note; of Titus, 470 and note.
Beccus, a general in Gaul, 439 and note.
Bedriacum, battle of, 423, 433, 447.
Berenice, queen, attachment of Titus to her, 469 and note.
Berytus, now Beyrout, 522.
Bibaculus, a poet, 507 note.
Bibulus, M., edile, 6 and note; consul with J. Caesar, 12;
lampoon on, 13.
Bithynia, J. Caesar sent there, 2.
Britain, invaded by Julius Caesar, 17; reconnoitred first, 38;
Caligula’s intended expedition, 282 and note; that of Claudius,
308, 309; Nero proposes to abandon, 848; revolt there, 368 and note.
Britannicus, son of Claudius, 320; his regard for him, 330; educated
with Titus, 405; poisoned, ib.; honours paid him by Titus, ib.
Brutus and Cassius conspire against Julius Caesar, 49; they assassinate
him, 51; his dying apostrophe to Brutus, 52 and note; their fate, 55
and 78.
Bulla, the, worn by youths, 54 and note.

Caenis, concubine of Vespasian, 443; Domitian’s conduct to, 490.
Caesonia, Caligula’s mistress and wife, 269; threatened by him, 275;
slain, 291.
Caesario, son of Cleopatra by Caesar, 82.
Caius and Lucius, grandsons of Augustus, 89; their death, 118.
Caius Caesar, 74. See CALIGULA.
Calendar, the, corrected by Julius Caesar, 27 and note; by Augustus, 95.
CALIGULA, his birth, 254; origin of his name, 256; in Germany and Syria,
ib.; with Tiberius at Capri, 257; suspected of murdering him, 258;
succeeds him, ib.; his popularity, 259; honours to Germanicus and his
family, 260; his just administration, 261; consulships, 262; public
spectacles, 263; public works, 264; affects royalty, 266; and divinity,
ib.; treatment of his female relatives, 267, 268; of his wives and
mistresses, 269; of his friends, ib.; of the magistrates, 270; his
cruelties, 271-274; discourages learning, 275; disgraces men of rank,
276; his unnatural lusts, 277; exhausts the treasury, 278; his
rapacity, 279; his new taxes, 280; expedition to Germany, 281; bravado
against Britain, 283 and note; his triumph, 284; his person and
constitution, 285; style of dress, 286; personal accomplishments, 287,
288; his favourite horse, 289; conspiracies against him, ib.; omens of
his fate, 290; he is assassinated, 291.
Calpurnia, wife of J. Caesar, 14.
Capitol, the, burnt by Vitellius, 438; rebuilt by Vespasian, 452;
rebuilt by Domitian, 483.
Capri, island of, exchanged for Ischia, 137; Augustus visits it, 143;
Tiberius retires there, 217; his debaucheries there, 219-220.
Carinae, a street in Rome, 203.
Carmel, Mount, Vespasian sacrifices at, 447 and note.
Caractacus, 309 note; 334.
Cassius. See Brutus.
—— Chaerea, the assassin of Caligula, 289-291.
Caspian Mountains, pass through, 349 and note.
Catiline’s conspiracy, 9, 11.
Cato, M., infuses vigour into the senate, 9; yields to political
expediency, 12 and note; dragged to prison from the senate, 14;
threatens to impeach J. Caesar, 21.
Catullus, remarks on his works, 67-69.
Celsus, the physician, his works, 249.
Censor, office of, 100 and note.
Census taken, how, 102.
Chrestus said to make tumults at Rome, 318.
Christians, confounded with the Jews, 215 note; accused of sedition, 318
and note; cruelties of Nero to, 347; poll tax on, 489 note.
Cicero, M. T., his opinion of J. Caesar, 7 and 21; appealed to by him,
11; commends Caesar’s oratory, 35; remarks on the works of, 60-65;
dream of, 140.
Cinna, Cornelius Helvius, a poet, 517 and note.
Circensian games, description of, 26 and note, 27.
Circeii, near Antium, 236.
Circus, Flaminian, 310 note; Maximus, 355 and note.
Civic crown, description of, 3.
Claudii, family of the, 192-194.
CLAUDIUS, his birth, 296; childhood and education, 297; Augustus’s
opinion of him, 298; fills public offices, 300; held in contempt, 301;
unexpected elevation, ib.; elected by the praetorian guard, 302;
honours to the family of Augustus, 303; his moderation, ib.;
conspiracies against him, 304; conduct as consul and judge, 305, 306;
as censor, 307; expedition to Britain, 309; his triumph, 310; care of
the city and people, ib.; his public works, 311; public spectacles,
312, 313; civil and religious administration, 314, 315; military, 316,
317; banishes the Jews and Christians, 318 and note; his marriages,
319; children, 320; his freedmen and favourites, 321; governed by them
and his wives, ib.; his person, 322; his entertainments, 323; cruelty,
324; fear and distrust, 325, 326; affects literature, 328, 329; death
by poison, 330; omens previously, 331.
Clemens. See Flavius.
Cleopatra has Egypt confirmed to her by J. Caesar, 24; intrigues with
him, 34; has a son by him, ib.; flies with Mark Antony, 81; kills
herself, 82; her children by Antony, ib. and 81.
Coins of Caligula, 37; of Vespasian, 467.
Cologne, founded by Agrippina, 434 and note.
Colonies at Como, 19; foreign, 29.
Colosseum, the, begun by Vespasian, 453; finished by Titus, 470 and note.
Commentaries, Caesar’s, 36, 37.
Comet before Nero’s death, 366.
Comitium, the, embellished, 7 and note.
Como, colony settled there, 19 and note.
Compitalian festival, flowers used at 96, and note.
Confluentes, Coblentz, 250.
Cordus Cremutius, a historian, 99.
Cornelia, Julius Caesar’s wife, 2; her death, 5.
Corinth. See Isthmus of.
Cornelius Nepos, account of, 101.
Cotiso, king of the Getae, 117 and note.
Cottius, his dominions in the Alps, 216, 349.
Crassus, aspires to be dictator, 6; his conspiracies, 6 and 7; becomes
security for Julius Caesar, 11 note; reconciled to Pompey, 12.
Crates, a grammarian, 504.
Cunobeline and his son, 282; defeated by Aulus Plautius, 309 and note.
Curtius Nicia, a scholar, 517.
Curule chair, 89; description of, note ib.
Cybele, rites of, 121 and note, 194.

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