1908194038-500x500THE GREAT CONSPIRACY

Its Origin and History

BY

JOHN LOGAN

PREFACE.

In the preparation of this work it has been the writer’s aim to present
in it, with historical accuracy, authentic facts; to be fair and
impartial in grouping them; and to be true and just in the conclusions
necessarily drawn from them. While thus striving to be accurate, fair,
and just, he has not thought it his duty to mince words, nor to refrain
from “calling things by their right names;” neither has he sought to
curry favor, in any quarter, by fulsome adulation on the one side, nor
undue denunciation on the other, either of the living, or of the dead.
But, while tracing the history of the Great Conspiracy, from its obscure
birth in the brooding brains of a few ambitious men of the earliest days
of our Republic, through the subsequent years of its devolution, down to
the evil days of Nullification, and to the bitter and bloody period of
armed Rebellion, or contemplating it in its still more recent and,
perhaps, more sinister development, of to-day, he has conscientiously
dealt with it, throughout, in the clear and penetrating light of the
voluminous records so readily accessible at the seat of our National
Government. So far as was practicable, he has endeavored to allow the
chief characters in that Conspiracy-as well as the Union leaders, who,
whether in Executive, Legislative, or Military service, devoted their
best abilities and energies to its suppression–to speak for themselves,
and thus while securing their own proper places in history, by a process
of self-adjustment as it were, themselves to write down that history in
their own language. If then there be found within these covers aught
which may seem harsh to those directly or indirectly, nearly or
remotely, connected with that Conspiracy, he may not unfairly exclaim:
“Thou canst not say I did it.” If he knows his own heart, the writer
can truly declare, with his hand upon it, that it bears neither hatred,
malice, nor uncharitableness, to those who, misled by the cunning
secrecy of the Conspirators, and without an inkling or even a suspicion
of their fell purposes, went manfully into the field, with a courage
worthy of a better cause, and for four years of bloody conflict,
believing that their cause was just, fought the armies of the Union, in
a mad effort to destroy the best government yet devised by man upon this
planet. And, perhaps, none can better understand than he, how hard, how
very hard, it must be for men of strong nature and intense feeling,
after taking a mistaken stand, and especially after carrying their
conviction to the cannon’s mouth, to acknowledge their error before the
world. Hence, while he has endeavored truly to depict–or to let those
who made history at the time help him to depict–the enormity of the
offence of the armed Rebellion and of the heresies and plottings of
certain Southern leaders precipitating it, yet not one word will be
found, herein, condemnatory of those who, with manly candor, soldierly
courage, and true patriotism, acknowledged that error when the ultimate
arbitrament of the sword had decided against them. On the contrary, to
all such as accept, in good faith, the results of the war of the
Rebellion, the writer heartily holds out the hand of forgiveness for the
past, and good fellowship for the future.

WASHINGTON, D. C.

April 15, 1886.

CONTENTS.

[For detailed Table of Contents see below]

CHAPTER.

I. A Preliminary Retrospect,

II. Protection, and Free Trade,

III. Growth of the Slavery Question,

IV. Popular Sovereignty,

V. Presidential Contest of 1860,

VI. The Great Conspiracy Maturing,

VII. “Secession” Arming,

VIII. The Rejected Olive Branch,

IX. Slavery’s Setting Sun,

X. The War Drum–“On to Washington,”

XI. Causes of Secession

XII. Copperheadism vs. Union-Democracy,

XIII. The Storm of Battle,

XIV. The Colored Contraband,

XV. Freedom’s Early Dawn,

XVI. Compensated, Gradual, Emancipation,

XVII. Border-State Opposition,

XVIII. Freedom Proclaimed to All,

XIX. Historical Review,

XX. Lincoln’s Troubles and Temptations,

XXI. The Armed Negro

XXII. Freedom’s Sun still Rising,

XXIII. Thirteenth Amendment Passes the Senate

XXIV. Treason in the Northern Camp,

XXV. The “Fire in the Rear,”

XXVI. Thirteenth Amendment Defeated in House,

XXVII. Slavery Doomed at the Polls,

XXVIII. Freedom at last Assured,

XXIX. Lincoln’s Second Inauguration,

XXX. Collapse of Armed Conspiracy,

XXXI. Assassination!

XXXII. Turning Back the Hands,

XXXIII. What Next?

CHAPTER I.
A PRELIMINARY RETROSPECT.

AFRICAN SLAVERY IN AMERICA IN 1620–CONTROVERSY BETWEEN THE COLONIES AND
ENGLAND IN 1699–GEORGIAN ABHORRENCE OF SLAVERY IN 1775–JEFFERSON AND
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE–SLAVERY A SOURCE OF WEAKNESS IN THE
REVOLUTIONARY WAR–THE SESSION BY VIRGINIA OF THE GREAT NORTH-WEST–THE
ORDINANCE OF 1784 AND ITS FAILURE–THE ORDINANCE OF 1787 AND ITS
ADOPTION–THE GERM OF SLAVERY AGITATION PLANTED–THE QUESTION IN THE
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION–SUBTERFUGES OF THE OLD CONSTITUTION–THE
BULLDOZING OF THE FATHERS–THE FIRST FEDERAL CONGRESS, 1789–CONDITIONS
OF TERRITORIAL CESSIONS FROM NORTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA, 1789-1802–THE
“COLONY OF LOUISIANA” (MISSISSIPPI VALLEY) PURCHASE OF 1803–THE TREATY
–CONDITIONS TOUCHING SLAVERY–THE COTTON INDUSTRY REVOLUTIONIZED–RAPID
POPULATING OF THE GREAT VALLEY, BY SLAVEHOLDERS AND SLAVES–JEFFERSON’S
APPARENT INCONSISTENCY EXPLAINED–THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE–
MULTIPLICATION OF SLAVES–LOUISIANA ADMITTED, 1812, AS A STATE–THE
TERRITORY OF MISSOURI–THE MISSOURI STRUGGLE (1818-1820) IN A NUTSHELL–
THE “MISSOURI COMPROMISE”
CHAPTER II.
PROTECTION AND FREE TRADE.

CHIEF CAUSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION–OUR INDEPENDENCE, INDUSTRIAL AS
WELL AS POLITICAL–FAILURE OF THE CONFEDERATION DUE TO LACK OF
INDUSTRIAL PROTECTION–MADISON’S TARIFF ACT OF 1789–HAMILTON’S TARIFF
OF 1790–SOUTHERN STATESMEN AND SOUTHERN VOTES FOR EARLY TARIFFS–
WASHINGTON AND JEFFERSON ON “PROTECTION “–EMBARGO OF 1807-8–WAR OF
1812-15–CONSEQUENT INCREASE OF AMERICAN MANUFACTURES–BROUGHAM’S PLAN–
RUIN THREATENED BY GLUT OF BRITISH GOODS–TARIFF ACT OF 1816–CALHOUN’S
DEFENSE OF “PROTECTION”–NEW ENGLAND AGAINST THAT ACT–THE SOUTH SECURES
ITS PASSAGE–THE PROTECTIVE TARIFF ACTS OF 1824 AND 1828–SUBSEQUENT
PROSPERITY IN FREE STATES–THE BLIGHT OF SLAVERY–BIRTH OF THE FREE
TRADE HERESY IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1797–SIMULTANEOUS BIRTH OF THE
HERESY OF STATE RIGHTS–KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS OF 1798–VIRGINIA
RESOLUTIONS OF 1799–JEFFERSON’S REAL PURPOSE IN FORMULATING THEM–
ACTIVITY OF THE FEW SOUTHERN FREE TRADERS–PLAUSIBLE ARGUMENTS AGAINST
“PROTECTION”–INGENIOUS METHODS OF “FIRING THE SOUTHERN HEART”–SOUTHERN
DISCONTENT WITH TARIFF OF 1824–INFLAMMATORY UTTERANCES–ARMED
RESISTANCE URGED TO TARIFF OF 1828–WALTERBOROUGH ANTI-PROTECTIVE TARIFF
ADDRESS–FREE TRADE AND NULLIFICATION ADVOCACY APPEARS IN CONGRESS–THE
HAYNE-WEBSTER DEBATE–MODIFIED PROTECTIVE TARIFF OF 1832–SOUTH
CAROLINA’S NULLIFICATION ORDINANCE–HAYNE ELECTED GOVERNOR OF SOUTH
CAROLINA–HERESY OF “PARAMOUNT ALLEGIANCE TO THE STATE”–SOUTH CAROLINA
ARMS HERSELF–PRESIDENT JACKSON STAMPS OUT SOUTHERN TREASON–CLAY’S
COMPROMISE TARIFF OF 1833–CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL’S SOLEMN WARNING–
JACKSON’S FORECAST
CHAPTER III.
GROWTH OF THE SLAVERY QUESTION.

“EMANCIPATION” IN NORTHERN AND MIDDLE STATES–VIRGINIA’S UNSUCCESSFUL
EFFORT–CESSION OF THE FLORIDAS, 1819–BALANCE OF POWER–ADMISSION OF
ARKANSAS,1836–SOUTHERN SLAVE HOLDERS’ COLONIZATION OF TEXAS–TEXAN
INDEPENDENCE, 1837–CALHOUN’S SECOND AND GREAT CONSPIRACY–DETERMINATION
BEFORE 1839 TO SECEDE–PROTECTIVE TARIFF FEATURES AGAIN THE PRETEXT–
CALHOUN, IN 1841, ASKING THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT FOR AID–NORTHERN
OPPOSITION TO ACQUISITION OF TEXAS–RATIONALE OF THE LOUISIANA AND
FLORIDA ACQUISITIONS–PROPOSED EXTENSION OF SLAVERY LIMITS–WEBSTER
WARNS THE SOUTH–DISASTERS FOLLOWING COMPROMISE TARIFF OF 1833–
INDUSTRIAL RUIN OF 1840–ELECTION AND DEATH OF HARRISON–PROTECTIVE
TARIFF OF 1842–POLK’S CAMPAIGN OF 1844–CLAY’S BLUNDER AND POLK’S
CRIME–SOUTHERN TREACHERY–THE NORTH HOODWINKED–POLK ELECTED BY
ABOLITION VOTE–SLAVE-HOLDING TEXAS UNDER A SHAM “COMPROMISE”–WAR WITH
MEXICO–FREE-TRADE TARIFF OF 1846–WILMOT PROVISO–TREATY OF GUADALUPE–
HIDALGO–SLAVERY CONTEST IN CONGRESS STILL GROWING –COMPROMISE OF 1850
–A LULL–FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW–NEBRASKA BILL OF 1852-3–KANSAS-NEBRASKA
BILL, 1853-4, REPORTED–PARLIAMENTARY “JUGGLERY”–THE TRIUMPH OF
SLAVERY, IN CONGRESS–BLEEDING KANSAS–TOPEKA CONSTITUTION, 1855–KANSAS
LEGISLATURE DISPERSED, 1856, BY UNITED STATES TROOPS–LECOMPTON
CONSTITUTION OF 1857–FRAUDULENT TRIUMPH OF SLAVERY CONSTITUTION–ITS
SUBSEQUENT DEFEAT–ELECTION OF BUCHANAN, 1856–KANSAS ADMITTED–MISERY
AND RUIN CAUSED BY FREE-TRADE TARIFF OF 1846–FILLMORE AND BUCHANAN
TESTIFY
CHAPTER IV.
“POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY.”

DOUGLAS’S THEORY OF POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY–ILLINOIS LEGISLATIVE
ENDORSEMENT OF IT, 1851–DOUGLAS’S POSITION ON KANSAS–NEBRASKA BILL,
1854–DRED SCOTT DECISION–SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS, REPUBLICAN CONVENTION
OF 1858–LINCOLN’S REMARKABLE SPEECH TO THE CONVENTION–PIERCE AND
BUCHANAN, TANEY AND DOUGLAS, CHARGED WITH PRO-SLAVERY CONSPIRACY–
DOUGLAS’S GREAT SPEECH (JULY 9TH, 1858) AT CHICAGO, IN REPLY–LINCOLN’S
POWERFUL REJOINDER, AT CHICAGO, (JULY 10TH)–THE ADMIXTURE OF RACES–THE
VOTING “UP OR DOWN” OF SLAVERY–THE “ARGUMENTS OF KINGS”–TRUTHS OF THE
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE–DOUGLAS’S BLOOMINGTON SPEECH (JULY 16TH),
OF VINDICATION AND ATTACK–HISTORY OF THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA STRUGGLE–THE
UNHOLY ALLIANCE–THE TWO POINTS AT ISSUE–THE “WHITE MAN’S” COUNTRY–
DOUGLAS’S PLEDGES TO WEBSTER AND CLAY–DOUGLAS’S SPRINGFIELD SPEECH,
JULY 17TH–THE IRRECONCILABLE PRINCIPLES AT ISSUE BETWEEN LINCOLN AND
HIMSELF–LINCOLN’S GREAT SPEECH, AT SPRINGFIELD, THE SAME EVENING–
DOUGLAS’S TRIUMPHANT MARCHES AND ENTRIES–THE “OFFICES SEEN IN HIS
ROUND, JOLLY, FRUITFUL FACE”–LINCOLN’S LEAN-FACED FIGHT, FOR PRINCIPLE
ALONE–DOUGLAS’S VARIOUS SPEECHES REVIEWED–THE REAL QUESTION BETWEEN
REPUBLICANS AND DOUGLAS MEN AND THE BUCHANAN MEN–JACKSON’S VETO OF THE
NATIONAL BANK CHARTER–DEMOCRATIC REVOLT AGAINST THE SUPREME COURT
DECISION–VINDICATION OF CLAY–“NEGRO EQUALITY”–MR. LINCOLN’S CHARGE,
OF “CONSPIRACY AND DECEPTION” TO “NATIONALIZE SLAVERY,” RENEWED–GREAT
JOINT DEBATE OF 1858, BETWEEN LINCOLN AND DOUGLAS, ARRANGED
CHAPTER V.
THE PRESIDENTIAL CONTEST OF 1860–
THE CRISIS APPROACHING.
HOW THE GREAT JOINT DEBATE OF 1858 RESULTED–THE “LITTLE GIANT” CAPTURES
THE SENATORSHIP–THE “BIG GIANT” CAPTURES THE PEOPLE–THE RISING
DEMOCRATIC STAR OF 1860–DOUGLAS’S GRAND TRIUMPHAL “PROGRESS” THROUGH
THE LAND–A POPULAR DEMOCRATIC IDOL–FRESH AGGRESSIONS OF THE SLAVE
POWER–NEW MEXICO’S SLAVE CODE OF 1859–HELPER’S “IMPENDING CRISIS”–
JOHN BROWN AND HARPER’S FERRY–THE MEETING OF CONGRESS, DECEMBER, 1859–
FORTY-FOUR BALLOTS FOR SPEAKER–DANGEROUSLY HEATED CONGRESSIONAL DEBATES
ON SLAVERY–THE DEMOCRATIC SPLIT–JEFFERSON DAVIS’S ARROGANT DOUBLE-
EDGED PRO-SLAVERY’ RESOLUTIONS–DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION,
CHARLESTON, S. C., 1860–DECLARATIONS OF THE MAJORITY AND MINORITY
REPORTS AND BUTLER’S RECOMMENDATION, WITH VOTES THEREON–ADOPTION OF THE
MINORITY (DOUGLAS) PLATFORM–SOUTHERN DELEGATES PROTEST AND “BOLT “–THE
BOLTING CONVENTION ADJOURNS TILL JUNE AT RICHMOND–THE REGULAR
CONVENTION BALLOTS AND ADJOURNS TO BALTIMORE–THE BALTIMORE CONVENTION–
“THE AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADER A TRUE MISSIONARY”–MORE BOLTING–DOUGLAS’S
NOMINATION FOR THE PRESIDENCY–THE BOLTING CONVENTION NOMINATES
BRECKINRIDGE–THE REPUBLICAN CONVENTION AND PLATFORM–NOMINATIONS OF
LINCOLN, AND BELL–COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FOUR RIVAL PARTY
PLATFORMS–THE OCTOBER ELECTIONS–THE SOUTH PREPARING GLEEFULLY FOR
SECESSION–GOVERNOR GIST’S TREASONABLE MESSAGE TO S. C. LEGISLATURE,
NOV. 5–OTHER SIMILAR UTTERANCES
CHAPTER VI.
THE GREAT CONSPIRACY MATURING.

LINCOLN’S ELECTION ASSURED–SOUTHERN EXULTATION–NORTHERN GLOOM–“FIRING
THE SOUTHERN HEART”–RESIGNATIONS OF FEDERAL OFFICERS AND SENATORS OF
SOUTH CAROLINA–GOVERNOR BROWN, OF GEORGIA, DEFIES “FEDERAL COERCION”–
ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS’S ARGUMENT AGAINST SECESSION–SOUTH CAROLINA
CALLS AN “UNCONDITIONAL SECESSION CONVENTION”–THE CALL SETS THE SOUTH
ABLAZE–PROCLAMATIONS OF THE GOVERNORS OF THE SOUTHERN STATES, FAVORING
REVOLT–LOYAL ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR MAGOFFIN OF KENTUCKY–THE CLAMOR OF
REVOLT SILENCES APPEALS FOR UNION–PRESIDENT BUCHANAN’S PITIFUL
WEAKNESS–CONSPIRATORS IN HIS CABINET–IMBECILITY OF HIS LAST ANNUAL
MESSAGE TO CONGRESS, DEC., 1860–ATTORNEY-GENERAL JEREMIAH BLACK’S
OPINION AGAINST COERCION–CONTRAST AFFORDED BY GENERAL JACKSON’S LOYAL
LOGIC–ENSUING DEBATES IN CONGRESS–SETTLED PURPOSE OF THE CONSPIRATORS
TO RESIST PLACATION–FUTILE LABORS OF UNION MEN IN CONGRESS FOR A
PEACEFUL SOLUTION–ABSURD DEMANDS OF THE IMPLACABLES–THE COMMERCIAL
NORTH ON ITS KNEES TO THE SOUTH–CONCILIATION ABJECTLY BEGGED FOR–
BRUTAL SNEERS AT THE NORTH, AND THREATS OF CLINGMAN, IVERSON, AND OTHER
SOUTHERN FIREEATERS, IN THE U. S. SENATE–THEIR BLUSTER MET BY STURDY
REPUBLICANS–BEN WADE GALLANTLY STANDS BY THE “VERDICT OF THE PEOPLE”–
PEACEFUL-SETTLEMENT PROPOSITIONS IN THE HOUSE–ADRIAN’S RESOLUTION, AND
VOTE–LOVEJOY’S COUNTER-RESOLUTION, AND VOTE–ADOPTION OF MORRIS’S UNION
RESOLUTION IN HOUSE
CHAPTER VII.
SECESSION ARMING.

THE SOUTH CAROLINA SECESSION CONVENTION MEETS–SPEECHES AT “SECESSION
HALL” OF PARKER, KEITT, INGLIS, BARNWELL, RHETT, AND GREGG, THE FIRST
ORDINANCE OF SECESSION–ITS JUBILANT ADOPTION AND RATIFICATION–
SECESSION STAMPEDE–A SOUTHERN CONGRESS PROPOSED–PICKENS’S PROCLAMATION
OF SOVEREIGN INDEPENDENCE–SOUTH CAROLINA CONGRESSMEN WITHDRAW–
DISSENSIONS IN BUCHANAN’S CABINET–COBB FLOYD, AND THOMPSON,
DEMAND WITHDRAWAL OF FEDERAL TROOPS–BUCHANAN’S REPLY–
SEIZURE OF FORTS, ETC.–THE “STAR OF THE WEST” FIRED ON–THE MAD
RUSH OF REBELLIOUS EVENTS–SOUTH CAROLINA DEMANDS THE SURRENDER OF FORT
SUMTER AND THE DEMAND REFUSED–SECRETARY HOLT’S LETTER TO CONSPIRING
SENATORS AND REBEL AGENT–TROOP’S AT THE NATIONAL CAPITAL–HOLT’S
REASONS THEREFOR–THE REVOLUTIONARY PROGRAMME–“ARMED OCCUPATION OF
WASHINGTON CITY”–LINCOLN’S INAUGURATION TO BE PREVENTED–THE CRUMBLING
AND DISSOLVING UNION–THE NORTH STANDS AGHAST–GREAT DEBATE IN CONGRESS,
1860-1861–CLINGMAN ON THE SOUTHERN TARIFF-GRIEVANCE–DEFIANCE OF BROWN
OF MISSISSIPPI–IVERSON’S BLOODY THREAT–WIGFALL’S UNSCRUPULOUS ADVICE–
HIS INSULTING DEMANDS–BAKER’S GLORIOUSLY ELOQUENT RESPONSE–ANDY JOHNSON
THREATENED WITH BULLETS–THE NORTH BULLIED–INSOLENT, IMPOSSIBLE TERMS OF
PEACE–LINCOLN’S SPEECHES EN ROUTE FOR WASHINGTON–SAVE ARRIVAL–“I’LL
TRY TO STEER HER THROUGH!”–THE SOUTH TAUNTS HIM–WIGFALL’S CHALLENGE
TO THE BLOODY ISSUE OF ARMS!
CHAPTER VIII.
THE REJECTED OLIVE BRANCH.

THE VARIOUS COMPROMISES OFFERED BY THE NORTH–“THE CRITTENDEN
COMPROMISE”–THE PEACE CONFERENCE–COMPROMISE PROPOSITIONS OF THE
SOUTHERN CONSPIRATORS–IRRECONCILABLE ATTITUDE OF THE PLOTTERS–HISTORY
OF THE COMPROMISE MEASURES IN CONGRESS–CLARK’S SUBSTITUTE TO CRITTENDEN
RESOLUTIONS IN THE SENATE–ANTHONY’S MORE THAN EQUITABLE PROPOSITIONS–
HIS AFFECTING APPEAL TO STONY HEARTS–THE CONSPIRACY DEVELOPING–SIX
SOUTHERN SENATORS REFUSE TO VOTE AGAINST THE CLARK SUBSTITUTE–ITS
CONSEQUENT ADOPTION, AND DEFEAT OF THE CRITTENDEN RESOLUTIONS–LYING
TELEGRAMS FROM CONSPIRING SENATORS TO FURTHER INFLAME REBELLION–
SAULSBURY’S AFTERSTATEMENT (1862) AS TO CAUSES OF FAILURE OF
CRITTENDEN’S COMPROMISE–LATHAM’S GRAPHIC PROOF OF THE CONSPIRATORS’
“DELIBERATE, WILFUL DESIGN” TO KILL COMPROMISE–ANDREW JOHNSON’S
EVIDENCE AS TO THEIR ULTIMATE OBJECT “PLACE AND EMOLUMENT FOR
THEMSELVES”–“THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT IN THE HANDS OF THE FEW”–THE
CORWIN COMPROMISE RESOLUTION IN THE HOUSE–THE BURCH AMENDMENT–
KELLOGG’S PROPOSITION–THE CLEMENS SUBSTITUTE–PASSAGE BY THE HOUSE OF
CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT PROHIBITING CONGRESSIONAL INTERFERENCE WITH
SLAVERY WHERE IT EXISTS–ITS ADOPTION BY THE SENATE–THE CLARK
SUBSTITUTE RECONSIDERED AND DEFEATED–PROPOSITIONS OF THE PEACE CONGRESS
LOST–REJECTION OF THE CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE
CHAPTER IX.
SLAVERY’S SETTING AND FREEDOM’S DAWN.

THE LAST NIGHT OF THE 36TH CONGRESS–MR. CRITTENDEN’S PATRIOTIC APPEAL–
“THE SADDEST SPECTACLE EVER SEEN”–IMPOTENCY OF THE BETRAYED AND FALLING
STATE–DOUGLAS’S POWERFUL PLEA–PATRIOTISM OF HIMSELF AND SUPPORTERS–
LOGAN SUMMARIZES THE COMPROMISES, AND APPEALS TO PATRIOTISM ABOVE PARTY
–STATESMANLIKE BREADTH OF DOUGLAS, BAKER AND SEWARD–HENRY WINTER DAVIS
ELOQUENTLY CONDENSES “THE SITUATION” IN A NUTSHELL–“THE FIRST FRUITS OF
RECONCILIATION” OFFERED BY THE NORTH, SCORNED BY THE CONSPIRATORS–
WIGFALL AGAIN SPEAKS AS THE MOUTHPIECE OF THE SOUTH–HE RAVES VIOLENTLY
AT THE NORTH–THE SOUTH REJECTS PEACE “EITHER IN THE UNION, OR OUT OF
IT”–THE DAWN OF FREEDOM APPEARS (MARCH 4TH, 1861)–INAUGURATION OF
PRESIDENT LINCOLN–LINCOLN’S FIRST INAUGURAL–GRANDEUR AND PATHOS OF HIS
PATRIOTIC UTTERANCES–HIS FIRST SLEEPLESS AND PRAYERFUL NIGHT AT THE
WHITE HOUSE–THE MORROW, AND ITS BITTER DISAPPOINTMENT–THE MESSAGE OF
“PEACE AND GOOD WILL” REGARDED AS A “CHALLENGE TO WAR”–PRESIDENT
LINCOLN’S CABINET
CHAPTER X.
THE WAR-DRUM–“ON TO WASHINGTON!”

REBEL COMMISSIONERS AT WASHINGTON ON A “MISSION”–SEWARD “SITS DOWN” ON
THEM–HE REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE “CONFEDERATE STATES”–THE REBEL
COMMISSIONERS “ACCEPT THE GAGE OF BATTLE THUS THROWN DOWN TO THEM”–
ATTEMPT TO PROVISION FORT SUMTER–THE REBELS NOTIFIED–THE FORT AND ITS
SURROUNDINGS–THE FIRST GUN OF SLAVERY FIRED–TERRIFIC BOMBARDMENT OF
THE FORT–THE GARRISON, STARVED AND BURNED OUT, EVACUATES, WITH ALL THE
HONORS OF WAR–THE SOUTH CRAZY WITH EXULTATION–TE DEUMS SUNG, SALUTES
FIRED, AND THE REBEL GOVERNMENT SERENADED–“ON TO WASHINGTON!” THE
REBEL CRY–“GRAY JACKETS OVER THE BORDER”–PRESIDENT LINCOLN’S FIRST
PROCLAMATION AND CALL FOR TROOPS–INSULTING RESPONSES OF GOVERNORS
BURTON, HICKS, LETCHER, ELLIS, MAGOFFIN, HARRIS, JACKSON AND RECTOR–
LOYAL RESPONSES FROM GOVERNORS OF THE FREE STATES–MAGICAL EFFECT OF THE
CALL UPON THE LOYAL NORTH–FEELING IN THE BORDER-STATES–PRESIDENT
LINCOLN’S CLEAR SUMMARY OF THE SITUATION AND ITS PHILOSOPHY–HIS PLAIN
DUTY–THE WAR POWER–THE NATIONAL CAPITAL CUT OFF–EVACUATION OF
HARPER’S FERRY–LOYAL TROOPS TO THE RESCUE–FIGHTING THEIR WAY THROUGH
BALTIMORE–REBEL THREATS–“SCOTT THE ARCH–TRAITOR, AND LINCOLN THE
BEAST”–BUTLER RELIEVES WASHINGTON–THE SECESSION OF VIRGINIA AND NORTH
CAROLINA–SHAMEFUL EVACUATION OF NORFOLK NAVY YARD–SEIZURE OF MINTS AND
ARSENALS–UNION AND REBEL FORCES CONCENTRATING–THE NATIONAL CAPITAL
FORTIFIED–BLOCKADE OF SOUTHERN PORTS–DEATH OF ELLSWORTH–BUTLER
CONFISCATES NEGRO PROPERTY AS “CONTRABAND OF WAR”–A REBEL YARN
CHAPTER XI.
THE CAUSES OF SECESSION.

ABOUNDING EVIDENCES OF CONSPIRACY–MACLAY’S UNPUBLI1SHED DIARY 1787-
1791–PIERCE BUTLER’S FIERCE DENUNCIATION OF THE TARIFF–SOUTH CAROLINA
WILL “LIVE FREE OR DIE GLORIOUS”–JACKSON’S LETTER TO CRAWFORD, ON
TARIFF AND SLAVERY–BENTON’S TESTIMONY–HENRY CLAY’S EVIDENCE–NATHAN
APPLETON’S–A TREASONABLE CAUCUS OF SOUTHERN CONGRESSMEN–ALEXANDER H.
STEPHEN’S EVIDENCE ON THE CAUSES OF SECESSION–WIGFALL’S ADMISSIONS–THE
ONE “REGRETTED” CLAUSE IN THE CONSTITUTION PRECLUDING MONARCHIAL STATES
–ADMISSIONS OF REBEL COMMISSIONERS TO WASHINGTON–ADMISSIONS IN ADDRESS
OF SOUTH CAROLINA TO THE SLAVE-HOLDERS–JEFFERSON DAVIS’S STATEMENT IN
SPECIAL MESSAGE OF APRIL 29, 1861–DECLARATIONS OF REBEL COMMISSIONERS,
TO LORD JOHN RUSSELL–HIGH TARIFF AND “NOT SLAVERY” THE PRINCIPAL CAUSE
–PERSONAL LIBERTY BILLS–PRESIDENT LINCOLN’S DECLARATION OF THE
UNDERLYING CAUSE OF REBELLION–A WAR UPON LABOR AND THE RIGHTS OF THE
PEOPLE–ANDREW JOHNSON ON THE “DELIBERATE DESIGN” FOR A “CHANGE OF
GOVERNMENT”–“TIRED OF FREE GOVERNMENT”–DOUGLAS ON THE “ENORMOUS
CONSPIRACY”–THE REBEL PLOT TO SEIZE THE CAPITOL, AND HOLD IT–
MCDOUGALL’S GRAPHIC EXPOSURE OF THE TREASONABLE CONSPIRACY–YANCEY’S
FAMOUS “SLAUGHTER” LETTER–JEFFERSON DAVIS’S STANDARD OF REVOLT, RAISED
IN 1858–LAMAR’S LETTER TO JEFF. DAVIS (186O)–CAUCUS OF TREASON, AT
WASHINGTON–EVANS’S DISCLOSURES OF THE CAUCUS PROGRAMME OF SECESSION–
CORROBORATING TESTIMONY–YULEE’S CAPTURED LETTER–CAUCUS RESOLUTIONS IN
FULL
CHAPTER XII.
COPPERHEADISM VS. UNION DEMOCRACY.

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