Infinity, Patterned Symmetry, Pythagoras, and the Black Hole at the Edge of the Universe
Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D.
The long sought “grand theory of everything” must begin where there is no beginning and end where there is no ending: patterns which repeat themselves in nature and which give rise to infinite symmetry. Similar patterns are repeated from the micro-atomic to the macro-atomic, from snail shells to spiral galaxies. There is no reason to suspect these patterns end with individual galaxies. The symmetry and patterns exhibited by elementary particles, atoms, snail shells, sea shells, whirlpools, cyclones, solar systems, and spiral galaxies, should be applied to all galaxies, collectively, and to the cosmos. What these patterns have in common is they can be predicted from formulations first proposed by Pythagoras, and secondly, all orbit an eye or hole at their center. It is these same repeating patterns, within our own Hubble Length Universe which creates the illusion of expansion and acceleration as it spirals and orbits a universe-in-mass black hole. As distant galaxies come closer to this supermassive black hole, they accelerate and the light associated with those galaxies develop a red shift pattern indicative of that acceleration. However, as they accelerate they grow smaller in size, and appear to dim thereby creating the illusion they are speeding off faster and further away into the distance, when in fact they are falling into the infinity of a universe-in-mass black hole. These patterns do not end with the (known) Hubble Length Universe, but continue infinitely, giving rise to ever greater super-structures, of which the known universe is an insignificant fragment. Unifying symmetry, based on identical repeating patterns, leads not to a big bang creation event, but to an infinite universe which is eternal, and has no beginning, and no end.
1. REPEATING PATTERNS ARE THE LAW OF NATURE & THE COSMOS
The fabric of the “known” Hubble length universe, from galaxies down to the smallest atom, rely upon similar repeating patterns that generate micro-structures and super-structures which share a unifying patterned symmetry. A pattern, be it recurring numbers, events, or objects, repeats itself in a predictable manner down to its essential elements (Ball 2009; Novak 2002; Wille 2010). The pattern at the elementary level, therefore, becomes the basis, model, or template which is repeated on a larger scale to generate larger objects or series of events all of which exhibit the same or similar underlying pattern. Hence, elementary particles have orbits, planets have orbits, stars have orbits, and it can be assumed that, collectively, galaxies have orbits which would mean the “known” Hubble length universe, is also in orbit as all share similar patterns (Joseph 20010a).
The entire field of mathematics is the “Science of Patterns” and any sequence of numbers that may be described by a mathematical function has a pattern (Wille 2010). Recurring decimals are among the most common repeating patterns, in which sequences of digits repeat infinitely. For example, 1 divided by 81 will result in the answer 0.012345679012345679… the numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 repeat onward forever and into infinity. Likewise, numbers can be counted, added, or multiplied infinitely into ever larger sums with no end, or subtracted or fractionated infinitely into ever smaller sums. It is a one way journey into forever.
Infinity is a common feature of the patterns found in math, physics, and nature; and thus infinitely repeating patterns must also be a characteristic of the entire cosmos which could then be said to have infinite symmetry.
For example, in geology, a mineral’s crystal structure and fixed chemical composition are composed of a recurring pattern in a repeating arrangement. Plants consist of cells which repeat the same pattern and with each repetition the plant will grow.
In Euclidean geometry, a pattern known as a translation involves movement of every point a constant distance in a specified direction and the same can be said of rotation and reflection (Johnson 2007). A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. Some plants, like Ferns, consist of patterns which combine translation, scaling, rotation and reflection.
The same could be said of the symmetry of the cosmos which creates the illusion not just of expansion but acceleration. The symmetry of the cosmos is based on the repetition of patterns found throughout nature, from sea shells to spiral galaxies.
For example, snail shells, sea shells, vortices, the cochlear nucleus of the inner ear, etc., show similar repeating patterns around an eye. The patterns intrinsic to the shell of a snail are replicated repeatedly in nature and typify the structure of a cyclone and the Milky Way galaxy and every spiral galaxy so far observed.
Repeating patterns, because they repeat, have no beginning or end; they do not emerge out of nothing. Likewise, there is no reason to suspect that evidence of patterns in nature are indications of a big bang creation event, but rather, of an infinite universe where the same patterns repeat themselves in infinite directions, i.e. from the micro (sub-atomic) to the macro-atomic to the macro-macro atomic, and from the micro-atomic to the micro-micro-atomic and so on (Joseph 2010a,b). Therefore, just as sub-atomic particles orbit and comprise atoms, and just as particle accelerators can produce hundreds of sub-atomic particles (Halper 2010; Martin 2010; Schwarz 1996), these smaller particles are likely orbited by even smaller particles, and the pattern repeats itself infinitely into ever smaller spaces. Likewise, the pattern continues at the macro-level (Khlopov and Rubin 2010), with planets and solar systems orbiting and constituting galaxies, and galaxies which orbit and give rise to macro-superstructures which orbit and constitute macro-macro-superstructures, and this pattern repeats itself infinitely (Joseph 2010a,b).
This repeating pattern when applied to the cosmos, from the micro- to the macro- gives rise to a perfect symmetry.
2. SYMMETRY, REPEATING PATTERNS & THE COSMOS
Patterns found in nature can be said to have the capacity to repeat themselves to infinity and can give rise to symmetry; that is, patterned self-similarity. In physics and math, symmetry can refer to time, space, scaling, rotation, and functional transformations (El-Batanouny and Wooten 2008; Haywood 2010) .
“It is only slightly overstating the case to say that physics is the study of symmetry.” -PW Anderson, Nobel laureate.Symmetry in physics can refer to invariance under any kind of transformation. Since it appears practically all laws of nature originate in symmetries, this concept has become one of the most powerful tools of theoretical physics (El-Batanouny and Wooten 2008; Haywood 2010). For example, the Yang-Mills “Standard Model” is a theory which rests upon symmetry (Scheck et al., 2010). According to this model, the interactions of elementary particles, such as quarks and leptons, have definite symmetrical patterns. In fact it could be said that the properties of all the particles found in nature are based on symmetries which obey the laws of physics (Scheck et al., 2010; Wille 2010).
“Nature seems to take advantage of the simple mathematical representations of the symmetry laws. When one pauses to consider the elegance and the beauiful perfection of the mathematical reasoning involved and contrast it with the complex and far-reaching physical consequences, a deep sense of respect for the power of symmetry laws never fails to develop”–C. N. Yang, Nobel laureate.
The symmetry and patterns exhibited by elementary particles, atoms, snail shells, sea shells, whirlpools, cyclones, solar systems, and galaxies (Ball 2009; El-Batanouny and Wooten 2008; Khlopov and Rubin 2010; Wille 2010), can and should be applied to the micro-micro-atomic world, and to the macro-macro-atomic world. Therefore, the basic patterns of symmetry found in nature should be applied to the Hubble Length Universe. There is no logical or scientific reason not to. Hence, once applied, it can be predicted that the “known” Hubble length universe is also repeating a pattern as exhibited by its elemental parts, and is also in a spiral orbit and that these patterns continue giving rise to ever great superstructures which repeat themselves infinitely (Joseph 2010a,b).
The search for a “theory of everything” could be likened to the search for a unifying symmetry; the discovery of which is only possible if unifying symmetry is applied to the entire cosmos. Unifying symmetry, based on repeating patterns, leads to an infinite universe which is eternal and has no beginning and no end.
3. BIG BANG: WHEN RELIGION MASQUERADES AS SCIENCE
An infinite universe conflicts with the basic tenants of the Jewish-Christian religion which has had a strangle-hold on scientific thought for almost 2,000 years. Thus, in western culture, students and scientists alike, are taught the universe is finite and was created. To maintain this dogma requires that all experimental evidence be interpreted as supporting creationism, i.e. the theory of a big bang. Therefore, when it comes to the ultimate nature of the universe, the mainstream scientific community refuses to consider or apply the basic laws of nature and the laws of math and physics, and instead embraces “religion masquerading as science.” According to the mainstream view preached by the scientific community, nature is wrong, and patterns do not repeat themselves, but come to a sudden halt with individual galaxies. Symmetry and the patterns of nature should not be applied to the known universe, and this is because the patterns observed in nature are not really repeating patterns, but emerged out of chaos, from a big explosion, where nothingness, or a point of singularity existed in-itself, like a primal seed which had no origin. And then this primal singularity exploded for unknown reasons which can’t be explained by any branch of physics, including “relativity”, “quantum physics” or the “Standard Model”; and this creation event produced an opaque light and created a finite universe–exactly as described in the Jewish-Christian Bible.
The Jewish and Christian religion and their Bible, has dictated scientific thought for almost 2,000 years. In the Bible’s opening chapter, Genesis, we are told that in the beginning there was nothingness, and then: a miracle! God creates the heavens and the earth but which are without form and all was a void (Genesis 1.1-1.2).
Likewise, according to the acolytes of the Big Bang, at first there was nothing (or a singularity), and then, a miracle! The heavens are created, but they are without form and there was a void. And then, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang creation event, there was light; a ‘wall of light’ and the universe became opaque, and then, light was separated from the darkness, and the universe became transparent. And then, matter began to form–exactly as detailed in Genesis of the Jewish-Christian Bible.
In Genesis sections 1.3 to 1.4, of the Jewish-Christian Bible:
The entire theory of the Big Bang was in fact invented by a Catholic Priest, (Lematre (1927, 1931a,b) a member of the Pope’s Council of scientists who wished to make the Bible scientific. The theory of the big bang not only has its roots in Genesis of the Jewish-Christian Bible, but the Jewish holy book, the Torah (also known as Pentateuch, the five books of Moses).
In his book, Genesis and the Big Bang, Dr Gerald Schroeder (1991), a former professor of nuclear physics at MIT and member of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, has detailed how the theory of the Big Bang confirms the creation account as explained in Genesis and the Torah. According to Schroeder the theory of the big bang and the age of the universe was detailed in the Torah which provides evidence the universe was created around 15 billion years ago. According to the Jewish-Christian Bible, god created the universe and Earth in a matter of days. However, echoing arguments put forward by both Christian and Jewish scholars (including Moses Maimonides from the 12th century) Schroeder explains that a “day” (yom echad) as stated in Genesis, and then the second day (yom sheni,) third day (yom shlishi) and so on, does not refer to a 24 hour day, as time did not exist at the moment of the big bang, whereas a 24 hour day can only be applied to Earth, which, according to the Bible was not yet formed until several days had passed. Thus, in the Bible, where it states that on this day and on that day, god created this and that, these days following the big bang, actually correspond to billions of years. According to Schroeder, the Jewish Torah provides a date of 15 billion years, for the creation of the universe.
Should we be surprised then that the acolytes of the Big Bang have come up with a similar creation date?
There is a considerable body of evidence which does not support a big bang origin of the cosmos, or the mainstream interpretation of red shifts (Arp et al., 2004; Eastman, 2010; Lal 2010; Lerner 1991; Mitchell 1997; Hoyle et al., 2000; Ratcliffe, 2010; Sidharth and Joseph 2010; Van Flandern 2002). As noted, leading acolytes of big bang theology brazenly admit they accept a “supernatural explanation”; and they, and much of the scientific community, reject the scientific method when it comes to questions about the ultimate nature of the universe. Instead, they begin with a conclusion (the big bang) and then interpret any and all evidence as supporting a theory which is based on the supernatural and the Biblical book of Genesis. The theory of the big bang rests upon religious teachings which preach creationism, and which place Earth at the center of a finite universe which was created. Thus, the age and nature of the universe are determined, in part, based on how far away galaxies are from Earth and in accordance with Biblical teachings.