Before America became a nation, the regional powers which governed what would become the United States, used terrorism, mass murder, as well as biological and germ warfare to destroy and spread disease and epidemics among Native Americans. One of the first attacks was initiated by General Jeffrey Amherst, who also lent his name to what became the town and college of Amherst, Massachusetts…
America Betrayed: Bush, Bin Laden, & 9/11 by R. Joseph, Ph.D. University Press, $24.00, ISBN: 0971644578
Copyright ©2003 R.Joseph
NOTE: This is the HTML version of a downloadable PDF by Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D. Please visit his site for more of his remarkable and important work.
- IG Farben, AIDs, Anthrax, Eugenics
- OPERATION PAPERCLIP
- THE CIA & DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ATTACK AMERICANS WITH BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
- VULNERABILITY TERRORISM
- NATIONAL SECURITY OR FINANCIAL SECURITY
- “ETHNIC” BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS & THE ORIGIN OF AIDS/HIV
- IG FARBEN
- THE PERSIAN GULF WAR
- THE MONEY TRAIL
- THE ANTHRAX PLOT
- ANTHRAX PANIC SPREADS ACROSS NORTH AMERICA
- HOMELAND HEALTH & THE CARLYLE GROUP
- ANTHRAX: CONNECTING THE DOTS
- THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION TAKES CIPRO ON 9/11/ 2001
- THE SAUDI BIN LADENS
- THE FRACTIOUS MUJAHIDEEN: CIVIL WAR
- ENTER THE TALIBAN
- OSAMA BIN LADEN: DOUBLE AGENT
- PRINCE BANDAR ON BIN LADEN
- BUSH & BIN LADENS: PARTNERS IN THE BUSINESS OF TERRORISM
- THE SAUDIS & CIA SEND BIN LADEN ON A MISSION
- THE US IMPORTS & TRAINS 9/11 HIJACKERS & TERRORISTS AT U.S. MILITARY BASES
- THE BIN LADEN BROTHERS IN THE USA
- AL-QAEDA SETS UP SHOP IN THE USA
- GEORGE W. BUSH IS ELECTED PRESIDENT: THE COVER UP BEGINS
- ZACARIAS MOUSSAOUI
- THE ROWLEY MEMO: FBI SABOTAGES AL-QAEDA INVESTIGATION
- LIES, LIES & MORE LIES:
- JOHN O’NEIL: THE COVER UP CONTINUES
Chapter 11 9-11: BUSH KNEW & ALLOWED IT TO HAPPEN
- THE ISI
- AN AVALANCHE OF WARNINGS
- THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION TAKES CIPRO ON 9/11/2001
- BUSH UNLOCKS & OPENS DOOR TO TERRORISTS: AIR FORCE & FAA TOLD TO STAND DOWN
- DID THE FBI “GOOF”?
- THE COVER UP BEGINS: THE GHOSTS OF NIXON’S PAST.
- WE CHARGE YOU WITH TREASON & MASS MURDER
Chapter 12 TERROR FOR OIL
Chapter 13 BIN LADEN THE BUSINESSMAN
- THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION WAS AFRAID
- SECRECY & WHAT WE KNOW
- BIN LADEN BUSINESSMAN
- OSAMA THE BUSINESS MAN
- THE GRAND CHARADE
- THE GOAL WAS OIL
Chapter 14 A TAIL OF TWO “HEROES”
- Drunk, Drugged & Getting Out of Harm’s Way.
- WE DON’T KNOW WHAT’S GOING ON HERE, BUT IT LOOKS LIKE WE’VE BEEN DOUBLE CROSSED.
- LAUGHING BOY: THE COMPASSION CONSERVATIVE
Psychologists Explain 911 Denial
Cognitive dissonance and our inability to examine empirical evidence for fear of ostracism, anxiety, a challenge to our world view. How we appeal to denial to protect us from anxiety, and the effect of trauma on a national level after watching thousands of Americans killed on live television.
Before America became a nation, the regional powers which governed what would become the United States, used terrorism, mass murder, as well as biological and germ warfare to destroy and spread disease and epidemics among Native Americans. One of the first attacks (1) was initiated by General Jeffrey Amherst, who also lent his name to what became the town and college of Amherst, Massachusetts (2,3,4).
According to Frank Prentice Rand, author of The Village of Amherst: A Landmark of Light, “Amherst” was “the most glamorous military hero in the New World.” However, as detailed in the Atlas of the North American Indian (2), and the Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada (3) this glamorous military hero authorized the distribution of smallpox infected blankets and handkerchiefs to be used as germ warfare against American Indians.
In a letter to Colonel Henry Bouquet, commander of British forces, he asked, “Could it not be contrived to send the Small Pox among those disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them.” Bouquet answered back, “I will try to inoculate them with some blankets that may fall into their hands and take care not to get the disease myself.”
As documented in the notebooks of William Trent (5), commander of the local militia of the townspeople of Pittsburgh: on May 24, 1763 “we gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope it will have the desired effect.”
A small pox epidemic quickly spread among the men, women, and children belonging to the tribe of Chief Pontiac (3).
General Amherst was so impressed at the effectiveness of germ warfare that in a letter to Colonel Henry Bouquet, dated 16 July 1763, he made biological warfare official American policy and ordered the distribution of small pox infected blankets to “inoculate the Indians” and suggested that Bouquet “try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race.” In a letter dated 26 July 1763, Bouquet acknowledges Amherst’s letter and confirmed that “all your Directions will be observed” (4).
One hundred years later, the use of germ warfare had also become U.S. policy. Periodically, throughout the 19th century, the U.S. Army distributed contaminated goods and blankets to Native Americans (6,7,8,9), including those already confined to concentration camps (euphemistically referred to as “reservations”). The purpose of these biological attacks was the extermination and mass murder of American Indians. However, the biological agents now included Variola which can be stored in a dried state, as well as cholera and small pox. Again, the method of infection was through the distribution of blankets and other supplies that were to be distributed to the Indians (6,7,8,9).
For example, “in 1847 the small pox, before unknown among them, carried off a large part of the [Cayuse] tribe. The Cayuse, believing that the missionaries were the cause of it, attacked the mission on November 29, 1847, killed Dr. Whitman and thirteen others, and destroyed the mission. As a matter of fact, there seems little question that the infection was brought into the country in supplies intended for the use of the mission” (9).
In the year 1900, the U.S. Army began experimenting with a variety of biological weapons, some of which were used on American and foreign prisoners of war (10,11,12). The victims included five Filipino prisoners who were exposed to different varieties of plague, and 29 prisoners who were purposefully infected with Beriberi. In 1915, government agents began experimenting with toxins that would attack and destroy the brain and central nervous system. Twelve Americans held in a Mississippi prison were ex posed to pellagra.
Widespread development and testing of chemical and bio logical weapons ensued in America, Britain, and Germany (10,11,12,13,14). But, in the U.S. some of the first victims were again, Americans, including thousands of U.S. soldiers who were exposed to Lewisite, phosgene, and chlorine bombs (10,11). The tests were so successful, and so many soldiers sickened or died, that between 1916 and 1918 U.S. and British forces used 125,000 tons of phosgene, mustard gas and chlorine artillery shells against Germans soldiers causing an estimated 400,000 casualties.
The British and the U.S. were particularly fond of phosgene which has a lethal concentration 1/18th that of chlorine, and which causes a rather horrible death. Initially soldiers who inhaled phosgene would maybe cough a few times, and then go on fighting. However, over the next 48 hours the linings of their lungs would break down and they would drown and choke to death on their own blood and fluids. In June 1916, during the battle of the Somme, allied forces used a combination of phosgene and chlorine gas along a 17 mile front which then blew another 12 miles behind German lines, killing everyone and everything (1113).
Mustard gas was also a favorite. Initially, mustard gas causes only a slight irritation to eyes and throat, which then becomes worse and then excruciating. Mustard gas is a blistering agent, and causes hemorrhages and blisters on the skin as well as within the lungs and eyes. Men would be blinded and huge patches of skin would fall from their body (12,13).
Periodically, throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the U.S. Army deployed mustard gas against the men, women, and children of the Philippines and Puerto Rico who were protesting U.S. colonialism (15).
Mustard gas was not the only biological weapon employed. In 1931, Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, a government agent under contract with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, began infecting men, women and children with cancer cells. Later, as head of the U.S. Army Biological Weapons division, and a member of the Atomic Energy Commission, Rhoads directed secret radiation experiments which were conducted on thousands of unsuspecting U.S. citizens. In letters to the Department of Defense Rhoads openly advocated the “eradication” of dissidents with “germ bombs.” With regard to the people of Puerto Rico, Dr. Rhoads wrote: “What the island needs is not public health work, but a tidal wave or something to totally exterminate the population.” Dr. Rhoads is alleged to have injected hundreds of Puerto Ricans with cancer (15).
Cornelius Rhoads later became a founder and first director of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute, which specializes in research on cancer.
As we shall see, Dr. Rhoads is not the only doctor associated with the Rockefeller Institute who advocated mass murder and who purposefully injected non-White races to deadly infections.
In 1931, the United States government began experimenting with syphilis. The first known victims were black men living in Tuskegee, Alabama (16). In 1932, U.S. Public Health Service doc tors withheld treatment to men who had been infected in order to study the course of the disease in living subjects. The men did not know they were experimental subjects in a government study. They thought they were receiving treatment for their illness. Instead, they were given placebos (16).
Thousands of American citizens were exposed to a variety of chemical and biological agents over the following ten years, including, in 1942, 400 men held prisoner in Chicago. They were infected with malaria in order to get “a profile of the disease.”
The United States government also authorized the American Energy Commission to secretly inject hospitalized patients with plutonium in order to “profile “the long term effects (17). Most of these individuals became terminally ill and died.
In the early 1940s, the U.S. and Britain began working on developing “anthrax bombs” which they intended to drop on German cities. According to Stanford University historian Prof. Barton J Bernstein: “British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was ad vised that 1,000 projectiles, each of 500 pounds and containing 106 four pound anthrax bombs, could destroy life in a 25 mile area. Potential targets included Berlin, Hanberg, Frankfurt, Aachen and Wilhelmshafen.”
Because the Germans surrendered before any of these anthrax bombs could be tested on German civilians, these biological bombs were instead dropped on the villagers of Gruinard, an is land off the northwest coast of Scotland. In consequence, not only did most of the sheep and the villagers become ill and died, but the island became uninhabitable for more than 45 years (11).
After the defeat of Nazi Germany and Japan, the United States government recruited and employed hundreds of Nazi and Japanese doctors who had conducted horrific biological experiments on prisoners of war, including captured American servicemen (18). Among the more notorious was Dr. Shiro Ishii, who the U.S. Army happily put on its payroll (19,20). As the director of the Japanese Imperial Army’s bio-warfare unit, Dr. Ishii had authorized the use of an incredible array of chemical and of biological agents against American, British, Australian, Russian, and Chinese troops and pris oners of war. Ishii experimented with syphilis, typhoid-laced tomatoes, tetanus, plague-infected fleas, as well as germ bombs which were dropped on civilians and prisoners tied naked to wooden stakes. Those who survived these experiments were then dissected without anesthetic, while still alive (19,20).
The United States was most eager to obtain his expertise. In a deal arranged by General Douglas MacArthur—a man who twenty years earlier had ordered his soldiers to shoot U.S. workers who had gone on strike for better wages— Ishii became an invited lecturer at the U.S. Army bio-weapons center in Frederick Maryland.
The U.S. Army also obtained over 10,000 pages of Ishii’s “research findings.”
Nazi know-how was also exploited by the CIA and U.S. government (18). For example, at the close of World War II, U.S, Intelligence agencies raided the labs and offices of IG Farben, the German conglomerate which produced a number of nerve agents. Hundreds of Farben doctors and Nazi research scientists were recruited by Dulles and friends.
Although many Nazi doctors were hanged, just as many be came agents of the CIA and United States government, including Walter Schreiber, who helped conduct many of the Nazi medical experiments at Dachau. Yet another famous Nazi, Dr. Josef Mengele—the ultra-sadistic “angel of death”— also began working for the good ‘ol USA (20).
In fact, prior to and during the war with Nazi Germany, Mengele, and other Nazis doctors, were funded in part, through the Rockefeller foundation, and thus already had a connection to America and Allen Dulles who would become head of the CIA.
When it became evident that Germany would lose the war, Bill Donovan, head of the OSS, and Allen Dulles, OSS head of intelligence operations in Europe operating out of Switzerland, hatched a plan, in 1944, to recruit thousands of Nazi intelligence officers, industrialists, and scientists, and bring them to the United States, where they would then be put to work for various U.S. government and military agencies controlled by the OSS.
Dulles was perfectly suited for this role due in part to his duties as a Nazi gobetween for Bush, Harriman, and Rockefeller (see chapters 2,3,4).
Unbeknownst to President Roosevelt, who was already considering bringing charges of treason against Dulles, Bush, Harriman and others (see chapter 3,4), nearly 10,000 intelligence officers, known as T-Forces, landed right behind Allied battalions on the D Day invasion of June 1944. Their primary mission was to arrest and seize German scientists and their research materials, along with munitions experts and technicians, and then place them in an internment camp known as the “Dustbin” where they could then be interrogated and debriefed. However, many of these TForce intelligence officers, were in fact scientists and high ranking corporate officials, whose main allegiance was not to the United States gov ernment, but to the Rockefellers, the Harrimans, the Bush family, and the corporations they worked for.
Dulles and gang were essentially engaging in what could be termed a “hostile corporate takeover.” German assets would thus become the assets of U.S. corporations linked to Dulles, Bush, Harriman, Rockefeller, et al. In December 1944, after Roosevelt began to receive reports of what they were intending, he informed Bill Donovan and Allen Dulles, in no uncertain terms that he was completely opposed to their plan. Nevertheless they and their al lies continued to try to convince him to give permission for these Nazi scientists to come to the U.S. and to work for U.S. corpora tions. In order to make Roosevelt more agreeable, they added that these Nazis would not be allowed to profit from their misdeeds— only the U.S. corporations that they went to work for. As summed up by Dulles: If these Nazis were “given permission for entry into the United States after the war….their earnings [would be placed] on deposit in an American bank and the like.”
Roosevelt was outraged and turned Dulles down flat: “We expect that the number of Germans who are anxious to save their skins and property will rapidly increase. Among them may be some who should properly be tried for war crimes, or at least arrested for active participation in Nazi activities. Even with the necessary controls you mention, I am not prepared to authorize the giving of guarantees.”
Dulles wasn’t worried. Roosevelt would soon be dead. Soon after Roosevelt’s death, and with the blessing of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Dulles initiated “Operation Overcast” in July 1945. Initially, 350 Nazi scientists, chemical weapons designers, and ballistics and rocketry experts and engineers, including SS officers, Dr. Herbert Axster, Dr. Arthur Rudolph, Georg Richkey, Kurt Blome, and Werner Von Braun and his V2 rocket team, were smuggled into the United States. This initial shipment was followed by several others, in an operation called, “Operation Paper Clip.” Over 1000 Nazi doctors and SS scientists, including Hermann Becker-Freyseng and Konrad Schaeffer, were illegally brought to the United States where they were put to work for major corporations and government agencies including what would become NASA and the CIA (18,21,21,22).
Sigmund Rascher, Hermann BeckerFreyseng and Konrad Schaeffer, were typical Nazis. These doctors, scientists, and others of their ilk, labored away in concentration camps, such as Dachau where they conducted research on how prisoners would react to burning, drowning, gassing, wound infections, and high altitude tests (23). These and other Nazi doctors purposefully inflicted “battlefield traumas” on male and female prisoners, and would study the healing process after these wounds were filled with gangrene cultures, sawdust, mustard gas, broken glass, metal shavings, and on so. The wounds would then be sewn up and the prisoners would be observed to see how long it took them to die.
Even before they came to the U.S. Hermann Becker-Freyseng and Konrad Schaeffer, were already quite famous, and had authored the study “Thirst and Thirst Quenching in Emergency Situations at Sea” (24). These experiments took place at Dachau. Concentration camp prisoners had salt water injected into their veins or forced down their throats through tubes. In one set of experiments, half were given berkatit, a toxic drug which was supposed to make salt water more palatable. During the course of these experiments, liver tissue would be extracted without the benefit of anesthetic. All the research subjects died.
Dulles and gang were quite pleased to have recruited these men. Becker Freyseng and Schaeffer received long-term contracts under Paperclip (22). Schaeffer ended up in Texas, where he con tinued his research into “thirst and desalinization of salt water,” whereas Becker-Freyseng was put to work for the U.S. Air Force during which he composed a multi-volume work, entitled “German Aviation Medicine: World War II,” which was published by the US Air Force. Becker-Freyseng had the honor of writing the introduction.
Dr. Sigmund Rascher, also performed human research at Dachau. His specialty was the reaction of humans to high altitudes, which he tested via a special low pressure chamber which simulated altitudes of up to 68,000 feet. Hundreds of men were locked inside, one at a time, and many where kept there for up to 30 minutes without oxygen. Once they became unconscious, these men would be dragged from the chamber and drowned in vats of ice water. Some were immediately revived, and were then subject to further experimentation. For example, while still alive and breathing, Rascher would cut open their skulls in order to determine how many blood vessels had burst due to air embolisms.
According to Rascher’s meticulous notes: “Some experiments gave men such pressure in their heads that they would go mad and pull out their hair in an effort to relieve such pressure. They would tear at their heads and faces with their hands and scream in an effort to relieve pressure on their eardrums.”
Richkey was the camp supervisor at the Dora concentration camp where prisoners were worked to death in the Mitteiwerk complex, or as slave labor for Von Braun (25). Richkey was a sadist, who enjoyed using Christian symbolism when killing Jews. For example, he would often have them hung twelve at a time from factory cranes—in honor of Christ and his 12 disciples— and would order that wooden sticks be shoved into their mouths and down their throats to muffle their cries.
Dulles consider Richkey to be an intelligence asset. After he was smuggled into the United States, Richkey was put to work at Wright Field, an Army Air Corps base, in Ohio, where his duties included providing security for his fellow Nazis. He was also employed as a translator, and was given the task of translating all of the records from the Mitteiwerk factory.
In 1947, columnist, Drew Pearson, wrote a scathing article about Richkey and some of the others Nazis working for the U.S. government.
Dulles, through his surrogates, denounced Pearson as un American and explained that his concerns were unrealistic (26). Bosquet Wev, head of JOIA, dismissed complaints about the scientists’ Nazi pasts as “a picayune detail.” He argued that if the U.S. were to have left these Nazi scientists in Germany, they could have been recruited by the Soviets. If that had happened, it would have presented “a far greater security threat to this country than any former Nazi affiliation they may have had or even any Nazi sympathies which they may still have.” To complain about their past, was ancient history, Wev went on, it was like “beating a dead horse” (26,27).
Of course, if Richkey and the others had been put to death for their crimes, there would have been no reason to beat these “dead horses.”
On the other hand, if they had been put to death, it would have taken the U.S years to catch up to German science in the fields of rockets, jets, chemical and biological weaponry, and other weapons of mass destruction (27).