It was thirteen hundred years ago, in the seventh century AD., that the religion known as Islam arose in the Arabian peninsula (1). Arabia became the holiest of all Muslim lands, the land of Mecca. Arabia, today, is known as Saudi Arabia (1,2)—Saud being the name of King Ibn Saud who had aligned himself and his family, with Britain’s Imperial government.
With astonishing rapidity, Islam quickly spread across and conquered the Middle East, Byzantium, Persia, northern Africa, and Spain.
Islam was spread by the sword (1,2,3).
Over a thousand years ago, after driving out the polytheists and those who worshipped multiple gods and those who profaned the lands of Arabia, the prophet Muhammad declared that hencefore there shall “not be two religions in Arabia.”
And then, Arabia became the home of two Islamic religions: The Sunni Islamic religion (which claims the vast majority of followers, i.e. over 80%), and the Shiit Islamic religion which today, is the dominant religion of Iran (1,2).
The origins of this schism and the creation of two branches of Islam is in dispute. According to some versions, Islam became fragmented after the murder of Ali al-Husain, the son of Muhammad’s daughter, Fatima. It is said that Ali was murdered after a Jewish convert to Islam, claimed prophethood, and then declared that Ali was Allah (in the flesh). Ali (and others) believed these declarations to be sacrilegious and had the man, along with seventy others who attributed divinity to him, burned alive (1,4).
In a related version, internal squabbling developed when two of Muhammad’s original followers, Talha and Az-Zubair saw Ali as a rival to their leadership. Ali believed, that since he was the grandson of Muhammad that he had the right to leadership, and to claim the caliphate (1,4).
Talha and Az-Zubair rejected that, and preached that anyone who is pious, and accepted as a devout Muslim can potentially be a caliph.
Ali mobilized his forces to fight them, in order to claim what he believed to be his birthright. Those who followed Ali were called “Shiits” (1,4).
The Shiits rejected the leadership of Talha and Az-Zubair as they believed the caliphate could only be held by descendants of Muhammed through his daughter Fatimah, beginning with Ali alHusain. According to the Shiits only the descendants (Imam) of Muhammed could become the caliph, because Muhammed and thus his descendants, were saintly and divinely appointed (4).
Ali was defeated and beheaded. However, his followers refused to follow Talha and Az-Zubair, and thus Shi’ism became an independent entity with a distinctive identity.
As Ali was the loser and his followers defeated, Sunni Islam became the dominant sect, and Shiits became the minority.
Although Sunnis and Shiits share the same Koran, they differ in regard to its interpretation and application (1,4,5). Sunnis take the Koran literally, as meaning exactly what it says. Shiites believe it is permissible to interpret the text and that their Imams can expand on it.
In Arabia, the home of Mecca, the Sunni branch of Islam is thus the more conservative. Since 800 AD, there has been an increasing emphasis on strictly obeying the authority of traditional doctrines. The Sunnis believe in the unquestioning adoption of previous authority, i.e. taqlid (“tradition”). New interpretations to fit the times or new circumstances (bida’ = innovation) is strictly forbidden (5).
According to the Sunni branch, God (Allah) is served by worshipping Him by what He prescribed. He is not served by innovation.
This belief system soon became known as the creed (or school) of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, the imam of Baghdad, was a Muslim jurist and theologian who lived and taught during the years 780-855. He was also the medieval founder of the most rigorous school of Islamic law. It was his disciples who founded the fourth major Sunni school of jurisprudence, the Hanbali (6).
Ibn Hanbal based his teaching on hädith traditions (6). The hädith are a collection of the traditions of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, including his sayings and deeds. The hadith also include his tacit approval of what was said or done in his presence (7).
Ibn Hanbal taught that the Koran was the uncreated word of God. He advocated a literal interpretation of the Revealed Text. Rational or dialectical attempts to dissect the meaning of the Koran, Ibn believed, would only lead to error and sin. He taught that only God could understand the Divine mystery and no one should attempt to interpret, dissect, analyze, or search for a deeper truth, beyond the obvious and literal meaning found in the words of the Koran (1,4,6).
This view continued to be championed and codified over the next four hundreds years. Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328), was the leading conservative or traditionalist voice of the Hanbali School of Islamic thought in the Middle Ages. He preached that the purpose of human life is not to know God. Life’s purpose is not to speculate about God. Nor is the goal to love God. The purpose of human life is to serve God through worship and obedience (1,4).
The school of Ibn Hanbal and that of Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya, inspired what became the Wahhabi school of Islam, which was led by Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792) in the late 18th century (1,4,5).
Because of wars, the repeated crusades by the Catholic West, and the battles fought with the Mongols of the East, as well as internal strife between Sunni and Shiits and the numerous rival Caliphs, the Muslim peoples had become fragmented and were now battling among themselves. Instead of Islam, some Arabs were even worshipping rocks, trees, caves, and the moon and the stars.
Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab saw it as his mission to unify the various factions and to recreate a single, unified, Islamic state. This became known as the “Wahhabi” movement: “those who advocate oneness” (Muwahiddun).
In the late 1700s, Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab formed an alliance with Muhammad Ibn Saud, a local war lord. Together they would lead a militant Islamic fundamentalist revival movement in Arabia (1,2,5). They called themselves Muwahiddun and demanded a strict monotheism based, in part, on the Islamic doctrines of Ibn Hanbal and Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya.
The Wahhabis, now led by Muhammad Ibn Saud, went on a rampage against Shiits, Sufis, and all those deemed unfaithful to the Wahhabis’ strict interpretation of the Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad. Heretics and apostates were tortured and killed if they refused to accept the Wahhabi’s faith. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Ibn Saud had declared holy war (jihad) on other Muslims and neighboring Arab tribes (1,2,5).
As preached by the Wahhabis, the customs and community of Muhammad and his followers at Medina are the only acceptable models for behavior, and all Muslims must adhere to these models and avoid “objectionable innovations” (bida’).
Even the structure and architecture of homes, Mosques, and graveyards had to conform to the Wahhabis’ brand of Sunni Islam (5). In 1802, the Wahhabis captured Karbala in Iraq and destroyed the tomb of the Shia Imam Husayn. In 1803 the Wahhabis captured Mecca and Medina. The tomb of the Prophet in Medina was attacked. Even minarets and funeral markers were destroyed. Religious police, called mutawi’oon (“enforcers of obedience”) were also set loose on the people and charged with maintaining Wahhabi moral order.
In 1901 Saudi amir Abd al-Aziz al-Saud captured Riyadh. Al-Saud soon gained control over the entire Arabian peninsula, at which point the Wahhabis went on a rampage smashing the tombs of Muslim saints and imams, and destroying the tomb of the Prophet’s daughter Fatima (1,2,5).
At the end of the first world war, and with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France pounced on the Middle East, and divided up the spoils. They created artificial boundaries and thus new states in the Middle East, as they believed that by fragmenting the Arab peoples they would be easier to dominate and control (2,8).
Although the Arabs had collaborated with the British, all war-time promises were scrapped at the urging of big oil companies in the name of “national security.” Thus, input from Arab leaders was not taken into consideration when Britain and France began creating new, artificial states in the Middle East.
Insofar as the oil men were concerned, a fragmented people, ruled by leaders appointed by France and Britain, would be easier to exploit, and could be more easily forced to accept whatever terms were offered in return for their oil. A single, powerful independent Arab state in the Middle East would be dangerous as the oil companies might be forced to pay oil royalties that would dip into their profits (8).
France took Syria and Lebanon, and Britain broke Arabia into three states: Iraq, Kuwait, and Arabia (2,10). Each state was then given its own ruler, who in turn owed their positions to France and Britain. Kuwait was handed to the al-Sabah family, the Hashemite King Hussein was awarded Jordan, and Arabia was given to the Saud family. Arabia was then renamed after King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud (Ibn Saud).
Ibn Saud was not pleased by the outcome. The division of Arabia into three artificial states was not what the British had promised. Ibn Saud sought to convince British High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox, to change his mind.
As detailed by Glenn Frankel and Harold Dickson (10), the British military attaché to the region, British High Commissioner Sir Percy Cox met with Saud in a 1922 conference in Baghdad: The meeting went on for five grueling days with no compromise in sight. Finally, one night in late November Cox, summoned Sheik Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud, to his tent, and then explained the facts of life as the British carved up the remnants of the defeated Ottoman empire. Cox, in no uncertain terms, laid down the law and told Saud that he, Sir Percy Cox, would make the final decisions as to the boundaries.
“This ended the impasse. Ibn Saud almost broke down and pathetically remarked that Sir Percy was his father and mother who made him and raised him from nothing to the position he held and that he would surrender half his kingdom, nay the whole, if Sir Percy ordered.”
Thus, the modern borders of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait were established by British Imperial fiat at what became known as the Uqauir Conference (8, 9,10).
King Ibn Saud, however, was determined to someday unify Arabia and to erase the artificial boundaries which created Kuwait and Iraq. Saud not only lusted after Iraq and Kuwait, but the southern states of the Soviet Union, whose populations were predominantly Muslim. Ibn Saud dreamed of spreading Sunni-Wahhabi control over this region, thus creating an even greater Islamic state which would be under the domination of the Saud family (3,5). In 1922, however, it was an impossible dream.
That changed in 1938, when huge deposits of oil were discovered beneath the ground. Ibn Saud was to become rich beyond his dreams, and his dreams included the Wahhabism ideal of a super-Islamic state that encompassed Iraq and the southern states of the Soviet Union (3,5).
Others too, shared some of those dreams, including Adolf Hitler, and the Rockefellers and their associates such as Prescott Bush and the Harrimans. The future director of the CIA, Allen Dulles, who worked as a lawyer for Prescott Bush, the Rockefellers, and Harrimans, and assisted them in establishing and covering up their extensive business partnerships with the Nazis (11), went to work establishing several interlocking financial networks between IG Farben, Rockefeller’s Standard Oil and the ruling family of Saudi Arabia, the House of Saud. Dulles played a significant role in the formation of the Arabian-American Oil Company (ARAMCO), the principle American partners of which were Standard Oil, Mobile, and Texaco (12).
The bin Laden family, were also part of the equation, as they had already formed a very close relationship with the house of Saud, in the early 1930s. Specifically, in 1931, Sheik Mohammed bin Laden, who had immigrated from South Yemen to Saudi Arabia around 1901, was awarded a contract to construct a royal palace for King Ibn Saud. Saud was so pleased with the work that he gave bin Laden an exclusive contract to renovate the holy of holies: Mecca. Soon the bin Ladens and only the bin Ladens were granted the exclusive rights to perform all construction that was of religious significance, including restoration of the holy places in Jerusalem (13).
The work of the bin Ladens was not limited to palaces, tombs, temples, and mosques, but oil-related construction projects. When ARAMCO was formed, the bin Ladens were part of the deal. The bin Ladens were the official contractor for the house of Saud (13).
The bin Ladens have had a very close relationship with the Saud family which has been maintained for over 70 years. It is said that Sheik Mohammed bin Laden was one of King Saud’s closest friends—a friendship has been passed down from generation to generation (13).
In addition to the Rockefellers et al., in the 1930s, the Saudis also cultivated a “friendship” with the Nazis and achieved an understanding with Adolf Hitler, as both were eyeing the same prize: the Caspian Basin, and the southern states of the Soviet Union. As Hitler stated in Mein Kampf (14): If we speak of soil in Europe today, we can primarily have in mind only Russia and her vassal border states.”
Hitler wanted “living space” and “oil.” And, he planned that upon conquering the Soviet Union, that Russia would be “divided up into individual states with governments of their own.” King Ibn Saud would be an ally in this campaign (15). Indeed, Hitler explicitly promised to Ibn Saud and his representatives that: “In this struggle which will decide the fate of the Arabs I can now speak as a man dedicated to an ideal and as a military leader and a soldier. Everyone united in this great struggle who helps to bring about its successful outcome, serves the common cause and thus serves the Arab cause…. The situation is as follows: We are conducting the great struggle to open the way to the North of the Caucasus…during the struggle… we will reach the Southern Caucasus…then I would like to issue a declaration; for then the hour of the liberation of the Arabs will have arrived.”
Hitler, however, was not just speaking to the Arabs, but to his partners, the oil companies, the Rockefellers, the Harrimans, the Bush family, as well as the Sunni-Wahhabi clan of Saudi Arabia. Indeed, the Nazis were also in business with Bush, Rockefeller, et al., (see chapter 3), who in turn, would go into business with the Saud family, thus creating an international axis joining Nazi Germany with Saudi Arabia, and Bush, Rockefeller, and thus big oil. Indeed, all had their eyes on the same prize:
“Our intelligence sources believe that the most important event of this period was the alliance between American oil companies and Saudi Arabia. It was the indispensable precondition for the war and the Nazi holocaust” (16).
The Nazis wanted oil, sought world domination, and supported mass extermination and terrorism. Standard oil wanted oil and funneled money to Himmler’s SS and supported terrorism (Chapter 2). And the Wahhabis, like the Nazis, were seeking world domination through mass conversion to Sunni-Wahhabism, and failing that, the mass extermination of those who resisted (3,5). And all had their eyes on the oil-rich southern Caucuses, the Caspian basin, and the southern Asian underbelly of the Sovet Union.
Thus, in the 1930s and continuing into the 1940s, the royal family of Saudi Arabia, Bush and associates, the CIA, and American Oil formed an unholy alliance with a terrorist (Nazi) regime (11,17), and part of the mix was the bin Laden family (13).
At the close of World War II, the United States government discovered what the oil companies already knew. A report issued by the U.S. State Department in 1945 described Saudi Arabia and its oil resources as “a stupendous source of strategic power, and one of the greatest material prizes in world history” (18).
Thus, the needs of the Saudi royal family, and the need to protect this “stupendous prize” became of paramount concern to the U.S. government. In 1950, President Truman wrote a letter to King Saud in which he said, “No threat to your kingdom could occur which would not be a matter of immediate concern to the United States.”
Middle Eastern policy became centered on Saudi Arabia, and the Saudi royal family who could do no wrong.
Ibn Saud and other local sheiks became rich and powerful men.
The Arabian people, however, remained ignorant, uneducated, impoverished, and thus easily controlled. In 1946, Ibn Saud spent $2 million just to maintain the upkeep of the garages which housed his three dozen luxury automobiles. By contrast, the Saudi government spent $150,000 on education (19).
In 1922, as noted, Arabia was split apart into separate states. King Ibn Saud, like his ancestors, was also a Wahhabi and an advocate of Muwahiddun (oneness). He was determined to someday unify his country and to erase the artificial boundaries which created the bastard states of Kuwait and Iraq. And, he and his family were determined to spread the Wahhabi movement to every corner of the globe in order to create a single, unified, Islamic state (3,5) — which, of course, would be ruled by his family.
Ibn Saud was succeeded by his son, the crown prince, Saud bin Abdul Aziz (King Saud) who reigned from 1953 to 1964. With the wealth pouring into his family’s coffers, King Saud began establishing ministries whose duties would include the export of the Sunni-Wahhabi brand of Islam to other nations. During his reign, the King Saud University was opened in Riyadh (2).
In 1960, Western hegemony was rocked to the core following the formation of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). OPEC was formed at a meeting held on September 14, 1960 in Baghdad, Iraq, by five Founder Members: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Control over oil from the Middle East was wrestled away from the big oil companies. However, the big oil corporations were content to go along as they continued to control the distribution and marketing of oil. Indeed, it was well recognized that if OPEC increased the price of oil, then American owned oil would also go up in price (19).
Riches beyond belief began pouring into Saudi Arabia.
In 1962, the Muslim World League was founded in Saudi Arabia for the specific purpose of exporting Wahhabism throughout the world (3,5,20).
In 1964, Faisal bin Abdul Aziz (King Faisal) became the third king of Saudi Arabia, reigning from 1964 to 1975. Faisal was a man wise to the ways of the world, having served as a successful general in the 1920s, Minister of Foreign Affairs in the 1930s and then Prime Minister under King Saud (2).
The huge surge in the price of oil following the 1973 ArabIsraeli war, made not just oil companies, but the royal family of Saudi Arabia incredibly wealthy. Faisal and over fifty of the patriarchs became billionaires (19). By the mid-1990s, over 680 billion dollars of Saudi money would be invested in the U.S. economy.
Faisal was dedicated to serving the Wahhabi ideals, and this, he believed could be best achieved by forming alliances with the rulers and the up and coming leaders of other countries, such as the United States (20). Faisal knew that the road to success was paved with gold, black gold (19), and that most men, no matter how “honorable” or “distinguished” had a price and could thus be bought and sold like whores. Faisal began buying friends and influence in America and elsewhere, “friends” who could be counted on for assistance or to look the other way.
The Bush family, with their outstretched hands, eagerly stepped up to the plate.
This incredible wealth also meant huge amounts of money were now available to fund Wahhabi missionary movements and Wahhabi centers of learning throughout the Muslim world.
Millions of dollars were spent on developing Islamic colleges and seminaries throughout the Islamic world as well as in the Americas and the European states. The Wahhabis began supporting Islamist fundamentalist movements in Egypt, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, the central Asian states of the Soviet Union (Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Uzbekistan), Western China, Malaysia, Indonesia, East Africa, and within the growing Muslim communities of Europe, Britain, and the Americas (3,5,20).
The Saudis also had the wealth to export their brand of Sunni Islam to other parts of the world through murder and terror. Wahhabism would be spread by the sword (3,5,20).
Terror, of course, had long been an instrument of the CIA and a succession of U.S. governments and Presidents. Insofar as their goals were congruent and compatible, the Saudis and the CIA, the oil companies, and the Wall Street elite, were happy to partner together in murder, terror and crime.
This partnership, which has its roots firmly entrenched in Nazi Germany, was given renewed emphasis when Khalid bin Abdul Aziz (King Khalid) became the fourth King of Saudi Arabia, reigning from 1975 to 1982. King Khalid, however, had a serious heart condition, and he was assisted in these Wahhabi-related endeavors by Fahd bin Abdul Aziz who, in 1982, became King Fahd, “Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques” (2).
It was during the co-reign of these two monarchs, that the bin Ladens became business partners with the Bush family. The Bush clan also forged relations with other Saudi families who would later play a significant role in financing and aiding the 9/11 terrorist attack on America.
With the election of Jimmy Carter, in 1976, George H. W. Bush (the director of the CIA) would soon be out of a job. George H.W. Bush, immediately began scouring the country, and other nations, for financial and other support, as he intended to run for the presidency in 1980.
That same year (1976), CIA director Bush personally recruited James R. Bath into the CIA (21). According to Bath business associate Charles W. “Bill” White: “Bath told me that he was in the CIA. He told me he was recruited by George H. W. Bush himself in 1976.”
James R. Bath, CIA operative, and friend of the Bush family, “was named a trustee for Sheik Salem bin Laden of Saudi Arabia. Bath’s job was to handle all of bin Laden’s North American investments and operations” (22).
James Bath also had the good fortune to become the representative of yet another rich and influential Saudi family, that of Khalid bin Mahfouz, the brother-in-law of Osama bin Laden (23).
Investing in the family of a man who might soon be president, made good business sense to the bin Ladens and other Saudis, and James R. Bath, invested $50,000 in the younger Bush’s first company, Arbusto Energy, even though it was nearly bankrupt with no hope of making a buck (23,24). These and other funds were provided by the bin Ladens and the Mahfouz families. Indeed, “most of Bath’s investments….were really fronts for Mahfouz and other Saudis connected with the Bank of Credit and Commerce (BCCI)” (24) as well as the bin Ladens (22).
James R. Bath was well connected to and trusted by the Bush family, having served not only as a CIA-operative, but in the Texas Air National Guard with George W. Bush (23). This friendship was apparently maintained during those periods when George W. was constantly drunk, snorting cocaine, as well as AWOL from his unit (25).
Over the next two decades the Bush family would continue to sell themselves to the Saudis and bin Ladens. Indeed, one he became vice-president and then President, an assortment of Saudi terrorists, crooks, gangsters and murderers eagerly lined up buy influence and to invest in the Bush family during the 1980s and beyond (21-25,26).
For example, Bin Laden brother-in-law, Sheik Mahfouz, the NCB banker for Saudi billionaire financier Abdullah Bakhsh (and David Edwards—a close friend of Bill Clinton who was also representing Bakhsh’s U.S. interests), arranged for Bakhsh to purchase 17% of another Bush company, Harken Energy, in 1987 (26). Harken was struggling with debt, and like Arbusto before it, was in danger of going bankrupt.
Bush, in a deal that has been described as classic, illegal, “insider trading,” dumped most of his stock before it tanked (27). Bush, and his Harken Energy company were desperately in need of a cash, and the Saudis stepped up to the plate and pitched him $25 million (26).
Talet Othman, a Palestinian representative of Bakhsh was also given a seat on Harken’s board of directors whose members included George W. Bush—the son of vice president, soon to be President George H.W. Bush.
It was soon thereafter that George W. Bush’s nearly bankrupt Harken Energy, was given a drilling contract with Bahrain. Money began pouring in (25,26).
The Saudis bought more than board membership, but a seat at President George H. W. Bush’s White House foreign policy table (23,26). In exchange for bailing out his son, George H.W. Bush also sold these men the right to help determine U.S. foreign policy.
In 1990, Othman, acting as a representative of Mahfouz, Bakhsh, and the Saudi royal family) along with 15 other Saudis, began attending White House meetings with the President George H.W. Bush and National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, to discuss not only Middle East policy, but Iraq (23,25). Three of these meetings took place during the period just before and after Iraq invaded Kuwait.
Although Saddam Hussein didn’t know it, the Saudis and the Bush men were plotting the demise of Iraq as an independent nation.
From 1980 to 1988, as the Afghan Mujahideen battled the Soviets, the Iraqi and Iranian armies were also slaughtering one another in a war that seemed to be without end.
The war between Iran and Iraq, which took over 1 million lives, was yet another manifestation of the Hegelian ideal: controlled conflict; or, in other words: “Lets you and him fight!”
Bankers loaned money to Saddam, knowing that if Iraq lost the war and defaulted, that U.S. taxpayers would pick up the bill. Defense contractors sold Iraq weapons that were paid for by U.S. backed loans.
The Hegelian synthesis, however, required that neither side win, and that both sides lose by nearly bleeding themselves to death in the ensuing war.
Finally, in 1988, a cease fire was agreed to, and Saddam turned his attention to settling old scores with the Kurds. Two of the largest Kurdish parties, the KDP (Kurdistan Democratic Party) and the PUK (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan) had collaborated with Iran during the war. Saddam murdered 200,000 Kurds in retaliation, with the assistance of the Reagan-Bush administration who provided chemical and biological weapons (39,40), including “19 containers of Anthrax bacteria” (39)
Indeed, all manner of advanced biological weapons were shipped to Iraq between 1988 and 1990, some of which was supplied by the American Type Culture Collection company, located near Fort Detrick, MD, the site of the US Army’s high security germ warfare labs” (39).
In return for U.S. assistance, Saddam agreed to allow the CIA and government scientists to study the effects of biological warfare on large population centers. With U.S. help and assistance, Saddam used biological weapons on the Kurds whose two main political parties, the PUK and the KDP, had backed Iran during the war.
It was not just biological weapons that the Reagan-Bush team made available to Saddam, but “weapons of mass destruction.”
Bush was the point man in dealing with Saddam, and at his urgings, the Reagan-Bush administration provided Saddam with advanced weapons, technology, military training, and the scientific know-how and the aid to develop a wide array of biological and chemical weapons, such as Sarin gas and military grade anthrax (39,40).
In 1988 and 1989, the Bush administration also approved licenses to U.S. firms to sell biological products to the Iraqi Atomic Energy Agency. In July 1988—two months after Saddam used chemical weapons to wipe out the Kurdish village of Halabja—the California-based Bechtel Corp. was awarded a contract to build a petrochemicals plant which would enable Iraq to produce mustard gas and fuel-air explosives. With the assistance of the Bush administration, U.S. businesses created a virtual “Saddam lobby” to increase weapons sales to Iraq (40).
U.S. firms also sold almost $800 million in “dual use” aircraft—ostensibly to be used for civilian purposes, but easily convertible to military use, as well as electronics equipment to Iraqi missile-producing plants. In fact, George H.W. Bush and his allies in the defense and banking industries, made it possible for Saddam to continue building up his war machine right up until August 1990, when Saddam invaded Kuwait (39,40,41,42).
As revealed by the Los Angeles Times (41) the administration of President George H.W. Bush signed a number of “National Security Decision Directives in 1989 ordering closer ties with Baghdad and paving the way for $1 billion in new aid. Secretary of State James Baker, after meeting with Iraqi foreign minister Tariq Aziz in October 1989, intervened personally to support U.S. government loans guarantees to Iraq.”
Of course, it must be pointed out that what Bush and Baker were guaranteeing is that U.S. tax payers would bail out any banks which provided loans, should Iraq be unable to pay, or if Iraq was subsequently destroyed—such as following a war with the United States.
As reported by Ted Koppel and ABC News Nightline (42) “It is becoming increasingly clear, that George Bush, operating largely behind the scenes throughout the 1980s, initiated and supported much of the financing, intelligence, and military help that built Saddam’s Iraq into the aggressive power that the United States ultimately had to destroy.”